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Conditions of Use

The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, educational, government, recreational, or other not-for-profit professional purposes. The Data User is permitted to produce and distribute derived works from this dataset provided that they are released under the same license terms as those accompanying this Data Set. Any other uses for the Data Set or its derived products will require explicit permission from the dataset owner.
2 ) Redistribution. The data are provided for use by the Data User. The metadata and this license must accompany all copies made and be available to all users of this Data Set. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set beyond this collaboration sphere.
3 ) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly cite the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier. For example:

Shaver, G. 1989. Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska. Arctic LTER, Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, Ma 02543. 1989gsttbm 

4 ) Acknowledgement. The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed significantly to its content. Acknowledgements should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers. For example:

Data sets were provided by the Arctic LTER. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants #DEB-981022, 9211775, 8702328; #OPP-9911278, 9911681, 9732281, 9615411, 9615563, 9615942, 9615949, 9400722, 9415411, 9318529; #BSR 9019055, 8806635, 8507493.

5 ) Notification. The Data User will notify the Data Set Contact when any derivative work or publication based on or derived from the Data Set is distributed. The Data User will provide the data contact with two reprints of any publications resulting from use of the Data Set and will provide copies, or on-line access to, any derived digital products. Notification will include an explanation of how the Data Set was used to produce the derived work.
6 ) Collaboration. The Data Set has been released in the spirit of open scientific collaboration. Data Users are thus strongly encouraged to consider consultation, collaboration and/or co-authorship with the Data Set Creator.

By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.


While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data, Dataset via LTER Data Portal
Dataset ID:2004_primprods_Kling.04
Dataset Title:Primary Production Data for lakes and lake inlets/outlets samples collected summer 2004, Arctic LTER, Toolik Research Station, Alaska
Investigator 1: 
First Name:George
Last Name:Kling
Organization:University of Michigan
Address line 2:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Address line 3:830 North University
City:Ann Arbor
Zip Code:48109-1048
Country:United State of America
Investigator 2: 
First Name:MaryAnne
Last Name:Evans
Address line 2:
Address line 3:
Zip Code:
Investigator 3: 
First Name:Amanda
Last Name:Field
Associate Investigators:
Keywords:primary production, primary productivity, chlorophyll, biomass, 14C, 14C primary production, 14C bicarbonate, autotrophic production, in-situ primary production, carbon assimilation, in-lake diel carbon-14 incubation, lakes, Toolik, arctic lakes
Abstract:Yearly file detailing rates of primary production in various surface waters near Toolik Research Station (68 38'N, 149 36'W). Sample site descriptors include an assigned number (sortchem), site, date, time, depth. Dates of analysis (incubation), and rates of primary production are also included.
For questions about the Metadata and data contact the Investigators.
For information about this web site contact:
Arctic LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7496
Online URL:
Data File URL
Data File Name 2004_primprods_Kling.dat
Beginning Date 6/7/2004
End Date 8/13/2004
Number of Data Records 333
Other Files to Reference 2006_akchem_Kling.dat, 2006_bacprods_Kling.dat, 2006_chla_Kling.dat
Availability Status
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description
Log of Changes: 29 May 2007 - Entered metadata into new metadata form.
20 March 2009 - Updated metadata using a new metadata form, updated variable descriptions, and added more research location information; Updated site name for I6 Headwater Lake - it was incorrectly identified as I6 West Headwaters; updated site names for E 05, E 06, and I Swamp.
Version 3: Metadata sheet updated to newer version (with sites sheet). CH 3 Apr 2013.
Version 4: Checked keywords against the LTER network preferred list and replaced non-preferred terms. Jim L 15Jan14
RESEARCH LOCATION:                                                
Location Name Toolik Toolik inlet Toolik inlet bay Toolik Outlet E 05 E 06 I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 I8 I swamp I6 headwater lake Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One  
Geographic Description Toolik Lake: an oligotrophic kettle lake on the North Slope of Alaska with a surface area of 150 ha and a volume of 10,566,000 cubic meters. Toolik inlet Surveyed by Sarah Barbrow in 2009, Kling,Cory,Nannen, and Crump in 2010. Toolik outlet E 05: a kettle lake on the North Slope of Alaska with a surface area of 113006 meters squared and a volume of 703.376 cubic meters. Sampling location is located approximately half-way along the the north-south transect of the lake, in the widest portion of the lake before it begins to narrow, closer to the western shore, and is ~10-12 meter in depth. E 06: a kettle lake on the North Slope of Alaska with a surface area of ~19.961 meters squared and a volume of ~34.819 cubic meters. Sampling location is in 2 meters of water on the southern shore of the north east half of the lake (furthest part from the haul road). I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 I8 I swamp I6 headwater lake Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description  
Location Bounding Box                                                
West Bounding Coordinate -149.633006                                              
East Bounding Coordinate -149.586709                                              
North Bounding Coordinate 68.641131                                              
South Bounding Coordinate 68.624027                                              
OR if single point location                                                
Latitude 68.629961 68.6256 68.625966 68.64061 68.642611 68.6434270583 68.5687130789 68.5713195633 68.5755366301 68.57956715 68.5873874391 68.5965924039 68.6008747982 68.6101575207 68.610781 68.582062 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Longitude -149.612633 -149.59605 -149.599022 -149.595012 -149.458079 -149.440564592 -149.58807625 -149.565881618 -149.583644456 -149.58405938 -149.589625877 -149.59264335 -149.596582063 -149.582211513 -149.600742 -149.622932 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Elevation 719 m 719 719 719 798 m 782 m 785 785 774 770 767 754 742 744 736 806 In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters  
Link to Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map                
Organisms studied
Methods:See "Lab Protocol Manual" accessible above.

Primary production is determined by uptake of 14C labeled bicarbonate in the particulate fraction and conversion into carbon assimilation (Wetzel and Likens 2000). Samples for Chlorophyll a and alkalinity and measurements of pH, conductivity, light, and temperature are collected in addition to the primary production samples.

For in-lake incubations (both in-situ and different lake), subsamples of the water collected from a specific depth with the VanDorn sampler are placed into a 70 ml bottle (2 clear and one dark bottle for each depth), 5 uCi of 14C bicarbonate is added, and bottle sets (2 clear, 1 dark) are incubated at collection depth for 24 hours. After 24 hr (+/- 1 hr), water samples are vacuum filtered through 0.45 um Gelmann GN-6 filters. Filters are air dried in mini-scintillation vials for at least 24 hours. The filters are then dissolved in 1 ml cellusolve before the addition of 5 mL scintillation cocktail (Scinti-safe). After the addition of Scintisafe, samples are placed in the dark for 24 to 48 hours prior to counting on a liquid scintillation counter (Packard Tri-Carb 2100TR). Sample exposure to light is minimized during all phases of the procedure.

Method Notes significant changes made to the protocol and why:

- Prior to 2000, 0.45 um Millipore HA cellulose filters were used for primary production analysis. Tests comparing these to the Gelman GN-6 filters currently used show no difference.
- Fertilization of lakes E 05 and E 06 caused an increase in biomass filtered and necessitated that subsamples of a known volume be taken from samples at these sites. From 2002 to 2004, this procedure was used as necessary. From 2005 onward, the entire sample was filtered through two filters in equal volumes. Both filters were placed in the same mini-scintillation vial and counted as one sample.
- Prior to 2006, the working solution was 50 uCi/mL and 100 uL was added per sample. This was the result of an inadvertent experiment where 3 times the amount of working solution was added to the sample. We did not observe a similar increase in our resulting estimates of primary production. It was determined that the working solution had forced the sample to conditions of carbon limitation because of the shift in pH (WS pH ~ 9). Therefore, we increased the activity of the working solution and reduced the volume added to a sample.

Steeman Nielsen, E.. 1951. Measurement of the production of organic matter in the sea by means of carbon-14. Nature. 167:846-685.
Wetzel, R.G., and G.E. Likens. 2000. Limnological analyses. 3rd edition, Springer.
Miller, M. C., G. R. Hatter, P. Spatt, P. Westlake, and D. Yeakel. 1986. Primary production and its control in Toolik Lake, Alaska. Arch. Hydrobiol. 74: 97-131.
Evans, M.A., S. MacIntyre, and G.W. Kling. 2008. Internal wave effects on photosynthesis: Experiments, theory, and modeling. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(1), 2008, 339-353.
Evans, M.A. 2007. Phytoplankon Ecology of Arctic Lakes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univerisity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Kling G.W. et al. 2000. Integration of lakes and streams in a landscape perspective: the importance of material processing on spatial patterns and temporal coherence. Freshwater Biology, 43, 477-497.

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Data Type Units DateTime Format Code Information Missing Value Code
Sortchem Yearly number assigned to samples collected at a specific site at a specific date and time. The year that the sample was collected is followed by a dash and then a sequential number. For example, if 600 samples were collected in 2008, then the first sample collected is 2008-0001 and the last sample is 2008-0600. text        
Site Site Name. If a soil site, the site is described in the name by general location then specific feature (watertrack,etc) then specific point (1,2,3,...). If a lake or streams site, the lake or stream name (as it is commonly known) is given. Exceptions in naming procedure are provided in the Code Information. text        
Date Sampling Date datetime   dd-mmm-yy    
Time_hr_dst Sampling Time in Alaska Daylight Savings Time (1 hour ahead of Alaska Standard Time: if 13:00 DST than 12:00 AST) datetime   hh:mm   .=Missing or Not Measured
Depth_m Depth from surface of lake, stream, or soil number meter     .=Missing or Not Measured
PPROD_ugC_L_day Rate of primary production number microgramPerLiterPerDay     .=Missing or Not Measured
Notes Notes about data text        

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