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The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, educational, government, recreational, or other not-for-profit professional purposes. The Data User is permitted to produce and distribute derived works from this dataset provided that they are released under the same license terms as those accompanying this Data Set. Any other uses for the Data Set or its derived products will require explicit permission from the dataset owner.
2 ) Redistribution. The data are provided for use by the Data User. The metadata and this license must accompany all copies made and be available to all users of this Data Set. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set beyond this collaboration sphere.
3 ) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly cite the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier. For example:

Shaver, G. 1989. Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska. Arctic LTER, Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, Ma 02543. 1989gsttbm http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/arc/terrest/biomass/index.shtml 

4 ) Acknowledgement. The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed significantly to its content. Acknowledgements should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers. For example:

Data sets were provided by the Arctic LTER. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants #DEB-981022, 9211775, 8702328; #OPP-9911278, 9911681, 9732281, 9615411, 9615563, 9615942, 9615949, 9400722, 9415411, 9318529; #BSR 9019055, 8806635, 8507493.

5 ) Notification. The Data User will notify the Data Set Contact when any derivative work or publication based on or derived from the Data Set is distributed. The Data User will provide the data contact with two reprints of any publications resulting from use of the Data Set and will provide copies, or on-line access to, any derived digital products. Notification will include an explanation of how the Data Set was used to produce the derived work.
6 ) Collaboration. The Data Set has been released in the spirit of open scientific collaboration. Data Users are thus strongly encouraged to consider consultation, collaboration and/or co-authorship with the Data Set Creator.

By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.

Disclaimer

While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data, Dataset via LTER Data Poral
Dataset ID:1988-2010_Kling_Akchem.03
Dataset Title:Biogeochemistry data set for soil waters, streams, and lakes near Toolik on the North Slope of Alaska.
Investigator 1: 
First Name:George
Last Name:Kling
Organization:University of Michigan
Address line 2:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Address line 3:830 North University
City:Ann Arbor
State:MI
Zip Code:48109-1048
Country:United States of America
Associate Investigators:
Keywords:nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus, ammonium, total dissolved nitrogen, total dissolved phosphorus, carbon, alkalinity, gases, dissolved organic carbon, carbon dioxide, methane, pH, temperature, conductivity, particulates, particulate phosphorus, particulate carbon, particulate nitrogen, soil water, inorganic nutrients, arctic tundra, arctic lakes, arctic streams
Abstract:Data file describing the biogeochemistry of samples collected at various sites near Toolik Lake, North Slope of Alaska. Sample site descriptors include a unique assigned number (sortchem), site, date, time, depth, distance (downstream), elevation, treatment, date-time, category, and water type (lake, surface, soil). Physical measures collected in the field include temperature (water, soil, well water), conductivity, pH, average thaw depth, well height, discharge, stage height, and light (lakes). Chemical analysis for the sample include alkalinity; dissolved organic carbon (DOC); inorganic and total dissolved nutrients (NH4, PO4, NO3, TDN, TDP); particulate carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus (PC, PN, and PP); cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K); anions (SO4 and Cl); silica and oxygen.
For questions about the Metadata and data contact the Investigators.
For information about this web site contact:
Arctic LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7496
Email: arc_im@mbl.edu
Online URL: http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/ARC/
DATA FILE INFORMATION:
Data File URL http://metacat.lternet.edu/das/dataAccessServlet?docid=knb-lter-arc.10279&urlTail=landwater/chemistry/data/1988-2010_Kling_Akchem.csv
Data File Name 1988-2010_Kling_Akchem.csv
Beginning Date 6/29/1988
End Date 8/21/2010
Number of Data Records 8187
Other Files to Reference
Availability Status
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description
Log of Changes: Version 1 (.01): file created May 2013
Version 2: Checked keywords against the LTER network preferred list and replaced non-preferred terms. Jim L 15Jan14
Version 3: Updated the values for Chla_ugL, Phaeopigment_ugL, Chla_Raw_ugL. J. Dobkowski 4Feb2014
 
RESEARCH LOCATION:                                                                                                                                            
Location Name Toolik Inlet Toolik Outlet I1 Outlet I2 Outlet I1 into I3 I2 into I3 I3 Outlet I4 into I5 I4 Outlet I5 outlet I5 into I6 I6 Inlet West I6 Outlet I6 Headwater Lake inlet I6 Headwater Lake Outlet I7 Outlet I Swamp Inlet I Swamp Outlet I8 Inlet I8 Outlet I7 into I9 I8 into I9 I9 Outlet Milkyway Upper Milkyway Lower I8 Headwater TW Weir TW Lower TW 01 TW 02 TW 03 TW 04 TW 05 TW 06 TW 07 TW 08 TW 09 TW 10 TW 11 TW 12 TW 13 TW 14 Imnavait Weir Imnavait WT 07 Weir Imnavait WT 08-01 Imnavait WT 08-02 Imnavait WT 08-03 Imnavait WT 08-04 Imnavait WT 08-05 Imnavait WT 08-06 Imnavait WT 08-07 Imnavait WT 08-08 Imnavait WT 08-09 Imnavait WT 08-10 Imnavait WT 08-11 Imnavait WT 08-12 Imnavait WT 08-13 Imnavait WT 08-14 Imnavait WT 08-15 Imnavait WT 08-16 Imnavait WT 08-17 Camp Pond Campsite Lake E 01 Outlet Green Cabin Lake Hershey Creek Itkillik Lake Itigaknit Lake Select Site or enter New One  
Geographic Description Inlet stream to Toolik Lake, sampled ~100m upstream of lake Outlet stream of Toolik Lake Outlet of Lake I1 Outlet of Lake I2 Stream from Lake I1 entering Lake I3 Stream from Lake I2 entering Lake I3 Outlet of Lake I3 Stream from Lake I4 entering Lake I5 Outlet of Lake I4 Outlet of Lake I5 Stream from Lake I5 entering Lake I6 Inlet stream to lake I6, originating at I6 Headwater lake Outlet of Lake I6 Inlet to I6 Headwater Lake Outlet of I6 Headwater Lake Outlet of Lake I7 Inlet to I Swamp Lake Outlet of I Swamp Lake Inlet of Lake I8 Outlet of Lake I8 Stream from Lake I7 entering Lake I8 Stream from Lake I8 entering Lake I9 Outlet of Lake I9 Small stream above gravel pad near Toolik Inlet Small stream running through gravel pad near Toolik Inlet Headwater stream of Lake I8 Tussock Watershed Weir Tussock Watershed stream where it enters Toolik Lake Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Tussock Watershed soil water sites Weir on Imnavait Creek Imnavait Water track 07 weir Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Imnavait Water Track 8 Near old camp by the south end of the runway Campsote Lake E01 outlet Headwater Lake of the Kupurak River Hershey Creek Itkillik Lake Itigaknit Lake Enter Description  
Location Bounding Box                                                                                                                                            
West Bounding Coordinate                                                         -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267 -149.617267                                                        
East Bounding Coordinate                                                         -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732 -149.614732                                                        
North Bounding Coordinate                                                         68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416 68.623416                                                        
South Bounding Coordinate                                                         68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381 68.622381                                                        
OR if single point location                                                                                                                                            
Latitude 68.6256 68.640398 68.572296 68.572546 68.574 68.57478333 68.57754 68.58423333 68.58143 68.589087 68.59491667 68.59688333 68.598684 68.578643 68.58357 68.60183 68.61035 68.611683 68.60853333 68.611341863 68.61818333 68.61838333 68.61938333 68.62016667 68.622 68.5736666666667 68.623488 68.627901                             68.617008435 68.611 68.610436 68.610491 68.610463 68.610496 68.610636 68.610584 68.610559 68.610736 68.610658 68.610625 68.610908 68.610822 68.610803 68.611131 68.610989 68.611275 68.611158 68.6333333333333 68.6 68.626523 68.53698 68.644702925 68.3833333333333 68.68738 In Decimal Degrees  
Longitude -149.59605 -149.595225 -149.581014 -149.570268 -149.583566 -149.58205 -149.582003 -149.5836 -149.5861 -149.589219 -149.586316 -149.60125 -149.599853 -149.621102 -149.62384 -149.596713 -149.599766 -149.599254 -149.587633 -149.590405849 -149.596766 -149.5965 -149.595283 -149.568166 -149.590666 -149.537166666667 -149.616559 -149.612951                             -149.317878 -149.311 -149.315792 -149.315098 -149.314014 -149.313277 -149.312265 -149.312239 -149.312247 -149.310918 -149.310894 -149.310879 -149.308353 -149.308328 -149.308326 -149.303762 -149.303702 -149.300583 -149.300585 -149.6 -149.183333333333 -149.558203 -149.2374 -149.412006136111 -149.916666666667 -149.67459 In Decimal Degrees  
Elevation 719 719 785 785 774 774 774 770 770 767 754 754 754 808 808 742 736 736 744 744 728 728 728 739 725 808 761 759   757 770 770 769 769 770 770 764 764 760 760 759 758                                       720 864 762 883 751.338 681 747 In Meters  
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TAXONOMIC COVERAGE:
Organisms studied
 
Methods:For water sampling protocols see the Arctic LTER Land-Water group protocol book accessible from the Land-Water mainpage on the Arctic LTER web page or at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~gwk and clicking on the protocol link at the bottom of the page. Specific methodologies are described in the protocol book listed above and a general description is provided below.

General analyses: In general water samples from soils, streams, and lakes are filtered in the field and kept cold and dark or preserved until analysis. Dissolved inorganic nutrients (NH4 and PO4) were analyzed by wet chemistry techniques at Toolik Field Station usually within 24 hours of sampling. Prior to 1999, the phenate method was used to analyze ammonium. In the years 1999-2001, a comparison study of the OPA method and the phenate method were performed. Starting in 2001, OPA was used to analyze ammonium content. Dissolved gases CO2 and CH4 were determined using a syringe equilibration method and analyzed at Toolik Field Station on a gas chromatograph. DOC, TDN, TDP, particulate C, N, and P, and dissolved ions were brought back to the University of Michigan for analysis. DOC is analyzed on a Shimadzu TOC-5000. Particulate Carbon and Nitrogen on a Perkin Elmer CHN 2400, TDN is analyzed on a Shimadzu TOC-5000 or using a persulfate digestion. TDP and NO3 are analyzed on an OI Alpkem autoanalyzer, ions on a Dionex ion chromatograph, and cations on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OESPerkin Elmer Optima 4300 or 8000). Alkalinity samples were run on a Radiometer autotitrator either at Toolik Field Station or at the University of Michigan.

For all analyses, sample values that were less than zero were assigned a value of zero. See specific protocols for limits of detection. Missing values (not sampled or analyzed) are represented by a period " . " in the dataset.

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Data Type Units DateTime Format Code Information Missing Value Code
SortChem A unique number assigned to each sample collected at a specific site at a specific date and time. The year that the sample was collected is followed by a dash and then a sequential number. For example, if 600 samples were collected in 2002, then the first sample collected is 2002-0001 and the last sample is 2002-0600. text       .=Missing values
Site Site Name. If a soil site, the site is described in the name by general location then specific feature (e.g., watertrack) then specific sampling point (1,2,3,...). Lake and stream sites use common names (e.g., Toolik) or LTER number codes. Exceptions in naming procedure are provided in the Code Information and in the AK-LTER_Site_Info.xls file. text       .=Missing values
Date Sampling Date datetime   dd-mmm-yyyy   .=Missing values
Time_hr_dst Sampling Time in Alaska Daylight Savings Time (1 hour ahead of Alaska Standard Time: if 13:00 DST than 12:00 AST) datetime   hh24:mi   .=Missing values
Depth_m Depth from surface of lake, stream, or soil, or a description of location such as "meta" for metalimnion. text meter     .=Missing values
Distance_km Distance along a stream where negative values are upstream of a designated starting point and positive values are downstream of the designated starting point. For soil sites, the distance is the perpendicular distance from the river or lake shore. Can include a text description. text kilometer     .=Missing values
Elevation_m Elevation above sea level number meter     .=Missing values
Description_Treatment Additional information useful for describing a sample. Information would be entered in this column if the sample was part of an experiment, method test, or manipulation. text     RE = Rain Event | FERT = Nutrient fertilization | BURN = Burned soil or vegetation | MIN = Addition of minerals | PHOTO = Photoexposed | BIO = bacterial incubation | TKI = Thermokarst impacted | ISCO = Automated water sampler | NAN = No treatment .=Missing values
DateTime_DST Combined date and time of sampling. This is Alaska Daylight Savings Time (this is different than Alaska Standard Time; 1 hour ahead of Alaska Standard Time: if 13:00 DST than 12:00 AST) datetime   dd-mmm-yyyy hh24:mi   .=Missing values
Catsort Category name for identifying projects associated with the samples. text     LTER-LW = LTER project Landwater group | LTER-Lakes = LTER project Lakes group | LTER-Streams = LTER project Streams group | LTREB = Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology project | AON = Arctic Observatory Network project | PHOTO = Photochemistry project | TK = Thermokarst project | BURN = Burn project | STUDENT = Student experiments or methods tests | ROOTS = Roots project .=Missing values
water_type Water type sampled (soil, stream, lake, rain, etc.) text     LA = lake water | GW = ground water | ST = stream water | HY = hyporheic water | PR = precipitation - rain | PS = precipitation - snow | CO = core (lake or soil) | DI = deionized water | ES = estuary | MA = marine | LE = leachate (leaves- soil- mud) | IS = isolate an extract of DOM compounds (e.g. using resins). .=Missing values
Temp_C Sample water temperature, deg C number celsius     .=Missing values
Cond_uS Electrical conductivity of the water sample number microsiemenPerCentimeter     .=Missing values
pH pH (opposite of the log of the molar hydrogen ion concentration) number number     .=Missing values
Alk_ueqL Total alkalinity (carbonate and non-carbonate alkalinity) number microequivalentPerLiter     .=Missing values
PCO2_uatm Partial pressure of carbon dioxide number microatmosphere     .=Missing values
PCH4_uatm Partial pressure of methane gas number microatmosphere     .=Missing values
CO2_uM Dissolved carbon dioxide gas concentration number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
CH4_uM Dissolved methane gas concentration number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
DOC_uM Dissolved organic carbon number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
NH4_phen_uM Ammonium by the phenol method number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
NH4_OPA_uM Ammonium by the OPA method number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
PO4_uM Phosphate (Soluble Reactive Phosphorus) number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
NO3_uM Nitrate number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
TDN_uM Total dissolved nitrogen number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
TDP_uM Total dissolved phosphorus number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
PC_ugL Particulate carbon number microgramPerLiter     .=Missing values
PN_ugL Particulate nitrogen number microgramPerLiter     .=Missing values
PP_uM Particulate phosphorus number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
Ca_uM Calcium number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
Mg_uM Magnesium number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
Na_uM Sodium number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
K_uM Potassium number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
Si_uM Silica number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
SO4_uM Sulfate number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
Cl_uM Chloride number micromolePerLiter     .=Missing values
Oxygen_mgL Dissolved oxygen number milligramPerLiter     .=Missing values
Chla_ugL Chlorophyll a (estimated by fluorometry) corrected for phaeopigment (phaeophytin). This acidification method was started in 1999, and applied to all samples in this spreadsheet (landwater) by 2000. Note that the Arcitc LTER Lakes group started this method in 2004. number microgramPerLiter     .=Missing values
Phaeopigment_ugL Phaeopigment (measured by fluormetry) estimated by acidification of a chlorophyll sample. number microgramPerLiter     .=Missing values
Chla_Raw_ugL Total Chlorophyll a (measured by fluorometry) without a phaeopigment correction (no acidification). This was this historical measure used by the Arctic LTER and previous studies of Toolik Lake. Chla_Raw = (((Sample Fluorescence - Blank) * Slope) - Intercept) * (Acetone_ml / Sample Volume Filtered) number microgramPerLiter     .=Missing values
secchi_m Secchi depth in meters number meter     .=Missing values
Light_deck_uEm2s PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) measured above water surface (in air). number microEinsteinPerMeterSquaredPerSecond     .=Missing values
Light_water_uEm2s PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) measured below the water surface. number microEinsteinPerMeterSquaredPerSecond     .=Missing values
K_per_m Coefficient of light attenuation (extinction coefficient). This is estimated by regression of PAR light in water versus depth (meters). Units are in per meter (meter-1) number numberPerMeter     .=Missing values
Thaw_depth_cm Average active layer thaw depth using 3 independent measurements (Thaw 1, Thaw 2, and Thaw 3) all taken within ~50 cm from the sampling site. All measurements are made in inter-tussock areas with a steel probe. number centimeter     .=Missing values
5cm_Soil_tempC Soil temperature at 5 cm depth from the soil surface, deg C number celsius     .=Missing values
10cm_Soil_tempC Soil temperature at 10 cm depth from the soil surface, deg C number celsius     .=Missing values
Well_height_cm Height of soil water in lysimeter, piezometer, or well. number centimeter     .=Missing values
Well_tempC Temperature of soil water in lysimeter, piezometer, or well, deg C number celsius     .=Missing values
Discharge_Lsec Discharge in liters per second number literPerSecond     .=Missing values
Stage_cm Stage Height of stream in centimenters number centimeter     .=Missing values

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