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Conditions of Use

The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, educational, government, recreational, or other not-for-profit professional purposes. The Data User is permitted to produce and distribute derived works from this dataset provided that they are released under the same license terms as those accompanying this Data Set. Any other uses for the Data Set or its derived products will require explicit permission from the dataset owner.
2 ) Redistribution. The data are provided for use by the Data User. The metadata and this license must accompany all copies made and be available to all users of this Data Set. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set beyond this collaboration sphere.
3 ) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly cite the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier. For example:

Shaver, G. 1989. Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska. Arctic LTER, Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, Ma 02543. 1989gsttbm 

4 ) Acknowledgement. The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed significantly to its content. Acknowledgements should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers. For example:

Data sets were provided by the Arctic LTER. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants #DEB-981022, 9211775, 8702328; #OPP-9911278, 9911681, 9732281, 9615411, 9615563, 9615942, 9615949, 9400722, 9415411, 9318529; #BSR 9019055, 8806635, 8507493.

5 ) Notification. The Data User will notify the Data Set Contact when any derivative work or publication based on or derived from the Data Set is distributed. The Data User will provide the data contact with two reprints of any publications resulting from use of the Data Set and will provide copies, or on-line access to, any derived digital products. Notification will include an explanation of how the Data Set was used to produce the derived work.
6 ) Collaboration. The Data Set has been released in the spirit of open scientific collaboration. Data Users are thus strongly encouraged to consider consultation, collaboration and/or co-authorship with the Data Set Creator.

By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.


While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data, Dataset via LTER Data Poral
Dataset ID:LTERKupAlk.03
Dataset Title:Alkalinity for the Kuparuk River near Toolik Field Station, Alaska for select years from 1992-present
Investigator 1: 
First Name:Breck
Last Name:Bowden
Organization:University of Vermont
Address line 2:303D Aiken Center
Address line 3:Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources
Zip Code:05405
Investigator 2: 
First Name:Bruce
Last Name:Peterson
Organization:Marine Biological Laboratory
Address line 2:7 MBL St.
Address line 3:The Ecosystems Center
City:Woods Hole
Zip Code:02543
Investigator 3: 
First Name:Linda
Last Name:Deegan
Organization:Marine Biological Laboratory
Address line 2:7 MBL St.
Address line 3:The Ecosystems Center
City:Woods Hole
Zip Code:02543
Investigator 4: 
First Name:Alex
Last Name:Huryn
Organization:University of Alabama
Address line 2:
Address line 3:
Zip Code:
Investigator 5: 
First Name:Elissa
Last Name:Schuett
Organization:University of Vermont
Investigator 6: 
First Name:Adrian
Last Name:Green
Address line 2:
Address line 3:
Zip Code:
Investigator 7: 
First Name:Karie
Last Name:Slavik
Associate Investigators:
Keywords:alkalinity, Kuparuk River, streams, arctic streams
Abstract:Water samples from designated stations in the Kuparuk River (near Toolik Field Station, Alaska) were collected and analyzed for alkalinity in the following years: 1992-1994, 1996-2004, 2009 and 2011-2012. Phosphorus addition has occurred in the Kuparuk River since 1983; station sites are relative distance from the original 1983 phosphorus dripper. Stations include sites in a reference, recovery, and fertilized reach. Reaches were defined based on the location of phosphorous addition (see methods). Phosphoric acid is added to the stream to increase the soluble reactive phosphorus by 0.32 uM. Three sampling dates occurred each summer; once in June prior to the start of fertilization and once each in July and August at two sampling locations.
For questions about the Metadata and data contact the Investigators.
For information about this web site contact:
Arctic LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7496
Online URL:
Data File URL
Data File Name 1992-2012_Kuparuk_Alkalinity
Beginning Date 7/7/1992
End Date 8/11/2012
Number of Data Records 114
Other Files to Reference
Availability Status 1
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description
Log of Changes: 3/2013: EBS organized metadata and data into this file; 4/2013: JPB moved to new spreadsheet and updated Research Locations.
Version 2: Checked keywords against the LTER network preferred list and replaced non-preferred terms. Jim L 15Jan14
Version 3: 1/2014: JPB added 2011+2012 data.
Location Name Kuparuk 0.3k Kuparuk 0.56k Kuparuk 1.8k Kuparuk 2.0k  
Geographic Description Kuparuk River, North Slope of Alaska, re-fertilized reach, formerly the recovery reach after historic fertilization. Kuparuk River, North Slope of Alaska, re-fertilized reach, formerly the recovery reach after historic fertilization. Kuparuk River, North Slope of Alaska, fertilized reach. Kuparuk River, North Slope of Alaska, fertilized reach.  
Location Bounding Box          
West Bounding Coordinate          
East Bounding Coordinate          
North Bounding Coordinate          
South Bounding Coordinate          
OR if single point location          
Latitude 68.6407478666667 68.64205425 68.6478126416667 68.6495472222222  
Longitude -149.400561111111 -149.403500566667 -149.415654311111 -149.416152463889  
Elevation 747.744 746.268 738.873 737.074  
Link to Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map  
Organisms studied
Methods:Alkalinity is the measurement of the Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) of a water sample. Alkalinity is usually reported in units of milliequivalents per liter of sample (meq/L). In Toolik area waters, ANC is due primarily to HCO3, CO3-2, OH-, and certain organic bases. Of these, HCO3 is usually by far the most important species. We are interested in measuring alkalinity for a couple of reasons. When coupled with a measurement of pH, alkalinity can be used to compute total dissolved inorganic carbon (needed for primary production measurements), and the partial pressure CO2 gas in the water (useful for atmosphere-water interaction studies). In waters which have a near-neutral pH (most of the Toolik area), alkalinity correlates well with the total concentration of dissolved ions, and hence can be useful in categorizing the overall ionic state of a water sample. Also, when used as a long-term monitoring tool, it can detect acidic impacts on lakes and rivers. Alkalinity is usually measured by titrating a water sample with a strong acid. The alkalinity is a measurement of the amount (equivalents) of acid needed to exactly neutralize the original ANC of the water sample. There are two common methods of performing this titration; both are based on monitoring pH as acid is added to a water sample. The procedure outlined below is based on the “Gran” methodology. In the Gran method, a series of pH measurements are made. The alkalinity is determined by an analysis of the rate at which pH changes in response to acid additions. In practice, the alkalinity is computed with a computer program written for this purpose.

Water samples were collected at designated stations along the Kuparuk RiverIn 1983, phosphorus addition through dripping began at the site designated as 0.0k. Stations downstream of 0.0k have positive numbers and upstream have negative numbers. The reach upstream of the phosphorus addition has remained the reference reach for the duration of this dataset. Downstream of the original phosphorus addition was the fertilized reach. In 1985, the phosphorus dripper moved to 0.59k, creating a recovery reach from 0.0k to 0.59k. In 1996, the dripper was moved downstream to 1.4k, creating a recovery reach between 0.6k and 1.39k. The historic recovery reach from 0k to 0.59k had not been fertilzed for 11 years, so it was then considered part of the reference reach after 1996. Reach information can be found in data for specific time periods. Water was filtered through a 25mm GF/F filter in the field; refrigerated, and analyzed after the field season at the MBL (until 2010), and at UVM (after 2010).

All available alkalinity data from the Kuparuk River is contained in this file. Note that samples were not anlaysed every field season. The following years are not available: 1995-1996, 2005-2008 and 2010.

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Data Type Units DateTime Format Code Information Missing Value Code
Site Code LTER site code text        
River site of measurement (named) text        
Date Date datetime   dd-mmm-yy    
Station (km) Distance from original N and P dripper, in kilometers. Negative numbers indicate sites upstream from fertilization, postive numbers are downstream. text        
Reach site of measurement (named) text        
alk (ueq/L) Alkalinity number microequivalentPerLiter     -1111=no data | -9999=below detection limit
Comments Notes about the data text        
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