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The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, educational, government, recreational, or other not-for-profit professional purposes. The Data User is permitted to produce and distribute derived works from this dataset provided that they are released under the same license terms as those accompanying this Data Set. Any other uses for the Data Set or its derived products will require explicit permission from the dataset owner.
2 ) Redistribution. The data are provided for use by the Data User. The metadata and this license must accompany all copies made and be available to all users of this Data Set. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set beyond this collaboration sphere.
3 ) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly cite the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier. For example:

Shaver, G. 1989. Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska. Arctic LTER, Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, Ma 02543. 1989gsttbm http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/arc/terrest/biomass/index.shtml 

4 ) Acknowledgement. The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed significantly to its content. Acknowledgements should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers. For example:

Data sets were provided by the Arctic LTER. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants #DEB-981022, 9211775, 8702328; #OPP-9911278, 9911681, 9732281, 9615411, 9615563, 9615942, 9615949, 9400722, 9415411, 9318529; #BSR 9019055, 8806635, 8507493.

5 ) Notification. The Data User will notify the Data Set Contact when any derivative work or publication based on or derived from the Data Set is distributed. The Data User will provide the data contact with two reprints of any publications resulting from use of the Data Set and will provide copies, or on-line access to, any derived digital products. Notification will include an explanation of how the Data Set was used to produce the derived work.
6 ) Collaboration. The Data Set has been released in the spirit of open scientific collaboration. Data Users are thus strongly encouraged to consider consultation, collaboration and/or co-authorship with the Data Set Creator.

By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.

Disclaimer

While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data, Dataset via LTER Data Poral
Dataset ID:1990_2000ArcLIDETMass.06
Dataset Title:Long-term Carbon and Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Dynamics of Leaf and Fine Root Litter project (LIDET-Long-term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team) data for the ARC, Arctic LTER. 1990 to 2000.
Investigator 1: 
First Name:Mark
Last Name:Harmon
Organization: Department of Forest Science
Address line 2:020 Forestry Sciences Lab
Address line 3:Oregon State University
City:Corvallis
State:OR
Zip Code:97331-7501
Country:USA
Investigator 2: 
First Name:Jim
Last Name:Laundre
Organization:Marine Biological Lab
Address line 2:7 M B L St.
Address line 3:
City:Woods Hole
State:MA
Zip Code:02543
Country:USA
Associate Investigators:
Keywords:decomposition, decay rates, litterbags, leaf litter, fine roots, wood, nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon fractions, organic matter
Abstract:This file is from the Long-term Carbon and Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Dynamics of Leaf and Fine Root Litter project (LIDET-Long-term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team). This file contains only the Arctic LTER data. In particular the mass looses over the ten year study. Three types of fine roots (graminoid, hardwood, and conifer), six types of leaf litter (which ranged in lignin/nitrogen ratio from 5 to 75), and wooden dowels were used for litter incubations over a ten year period.
For questions about the Metadata and data contact the Investigators.
For information about this web site contact:
Arctic LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7496
Email: arc_im@mbl.edu
Online URL: http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/ARC/
DATA FILE INFORMATION:
Data File URL http://metacat.lternet.edu/das/dataAccessServlet?docid=knb-lter-arc.1409&urlTail=terrest/litter/data/1990_2000ArcLIDETMass.csv
Data File Name 1990_2000ArcLIDETMass
Beginning Date 8/23/1990
End Date 8/22/2000
Number of Data Records 551
Other Files to Reference
Availability Status
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description
Log of Changes: For Archival Use:
Version 2: Checked and updated attribute table
Version 3: Added LTERNET Data Access server proxy for Excel and comma delimited data files.
Version 4: Upadte LTERNET Data Access server proxy link for Excel and comma delimited data files. Changed from knb to das in url.
Version 5: Missing values replaced with #N/A. Updated metadata form to newer version (without site sheet). Fixed discrepency with header variable names. CH 24 Jan 2013 Updated to newer metadata with site sheet. CH March 2013.
Version 6: Checked keywords against the LTER network preferred list and replaced non-preferred terms. Jim L 27Jan14
 
RESEARCH LOCATION:                                            
Location Name LTER Moist Acidic Tussock Tundra LTER Moist Acidic Tussock Tundra 1981 plots Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One  
Geographic Description Arctic LTER, Toolik Field Station, North Slope Alaska(68 degrees 38'N, 149 degrees 34'W, elevation 760 m). Moist Acidic Tussock Tundra. Toolik Lake(68 degrees 38'N, 149 degrees 34'W, elevation 760 m) Tussock Tundra - 1981 plots, control Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description  
Location Bounding Box                                            
West Bounding Coordinate                                            
East Bounding Coordinate                                            
North Bounding Coordinate                                            
South Bounding Coordinate                                            
OR if single point location                                            
Latitude 68.62405 68.6295 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Longitude -149.61058 -149.578 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Elevation 750 755 In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters  
Link to Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map                                        
                                             
 
TAXONOMIC COVERAGE:
Organisms studied
 
Methods:Litter Collection
Each site was responsible for collecting the litter used in the experiments. For most sites, the leaf litter was collected directly from senesecent plants or as freshly fallen litter. Green leaves were collected from the Jornada, San Diego, Luquillo, and LaSelva sites. All leaf litter except, Drypetes glauca which was oven dried at 40 C to prevent decay, was air dried prior to shipment to Oregon State University.
Fine roots (<2 mm diameter) were collected by two methods: tropical hardwood (Drypetes glauca) and pine (Pinus elliotii) fine roots were collected by excavating surface roots and washing. Graminoid roots were collected from material exposed along stream banks. Graminoid and pine roots were air dried, whereas the tropical hardwood roots were oven dried at 40 C to prevent decomposition.
In the case of the LaSelva site, the litter was sterilized after the bags were filled to kill all invertebrates, fungi, and virus prior to shipment. Sterilization was conducted at the Battelle National Laboratory by exposing the litter to 20 hours of gamma rays with 60Co as the source. The total exposure was 2 Mrad.

Bag Design
All bags were 20- by 20-cm and filled with 10 g leaves and 5-7 g of fine roots. Each bag was identified with a unique number embossed on an aluminum tag. The bag openings were sealed with six monel staples. The initial air dry weight, calculated oven dry weight, species, site, replicate number for each litterbag were recorded prior to placement in the field. Subsamples of litter material were taken to determine the air dry to oven dry conversion factor and the initial chemistry of the litter. Moisture content of the air dried litter ranged from 2-10% moisture content.
Three types of bags were used in this experiment. For the long-term leaf litter experiment the bags had a top mesh of 1 mm and a bottom of 55 micron mesh. The bags used for fine roots were entirely of 55 micron mesh. The bags used in the mesh size effects study had a top of 7 mm mesh and a bottom of 55 micron mesh.

Dowels
The wooden dowels used in the experiment are made of ramin (Gonystlylus bancannus). This species is a tropical hardwood from southeast Asia. It is not resistant to decay and rated as perishable. The dowels are 13 mm in diameter and 61 cm in length. One half of the dowel is to be embedded vertically into the soil and the other half is to be exposed to aerial conditions. The air dry weight of each dowel was recorded, and a subsample of dowels was measured for diameter, density, air dry moisture content, nitrogen content, and carbon chemistry.

Sample Placement
Samples were placed in the field during fall of 1990 by each of the participating sites. Locations were near climatic stations and in areas protected from disturbances that could destroy the litter bags. The locations were also selected to be typical of areas that other intersite decomposition experiments might be conducted.

The exact method for placement varied from site to site, but the following standards were applied:
1) Four separate locations were selected to avoid pseudo- replication problems.
2) Each set of bags to be collected was connected by a cord; these sets of bags should be laid out in parallel lines in a random order.
3) Leaf litterbags should be placed so that contact with the underlying litter layer is made. Fine root litterbags will be inserted into the upper mineral soil (humus layer for histosols). A vertical cut with a shovel, the bag inserted the correct depth (0-20 cm), and another cut should be used to press the soil against the bag (Figure 3).
4) Dowels should be installed at the end of the string opposite the fine root bags. The dowels were placed so that 30 cm is exposed to the air and 30 cm is embedded in the soil.

Sample Processing
Once the litter or dowels are collected they should be oven dried in a paper bags at 55oC until the mass is stable. In the case of fine roots and dowels, a rinse with distilled water to remove adhering soil prior to drying is recommended. Any mosses, lichens, fine roots, or other plant parts that have grown into the bags or dowels should also be removed prior to harvesting. Samples will be pooled by species, site, and time for grinding and archiving. A subset of unpooled samples will also be saved to determine the internal variability of pooled samples. Chemical analyses will be performed using two methods. Each pooled sample from each species, site, and time will be analyzed for total nitrogen, lignin, and cellulose using near infrared reflectance spectoscopy (Wessman et al. 1988). Internal variability of samples will be estimated by running replicates of high and low lignin species. Twenty five percent of the pooled samples will also be sampled for Kjeldahl nitrogen, lignin, cellulose, water extractive, non- polar extractive, and ash content using wet chemical methods. Wet chemical methods will then be used to calibrate the near infrared reflectance spectoscopy methods.

Variable: SPECIES

ACSA ACER SACCHARUM, SUGAR MAPLE
ANGE SCHIZACHYRIUM GERARDI, BIG BLUE STEM
BOER BOUTLOUA ERIOPODA, BLACK GRAMMA
BOGR BOUTLOUA GRACILIS, BLUE GRAMMA
DRGL DRYPETES GLAUCA
FAGR FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA, BEECH
GOBA GONYSTYLUS BANCANUS, RAMIN
LATR LARREA TRIDENTATA, CREOSOTE BUSH
PIEL PINUS ELLIOTII, SLASH PINE
PIRE PINUS RESINOSA, RED PINE
PIST PINUS STROBUS, EASTERN WHITE PINE
PSME PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII, DOUGLAS-FIR
QUPR QUERCUS PRINUS, CHESTNUT OAK
RHMA RHODODENDRON MACROPHYLLUM, PACIFIC RHODODENDRON
SPAL SPARTINA ALTERNIFOLIA, SALT WATER CORDGRASS
THPL THUJA PLICATA, WESTERN RED CEDAR
TRAE TRITICUM AESTIVUM, WHEAT

Variable: TYPE
A ABOVE PART OF WOODEN DOWELS
B BELOW PART OF WOODEN DOWELS
L LEAVES
M MNERAL SOIL
R FINE ROOTS
W WOODEN DOWELS

Variable: REP
1 INDICATES REPLICATE 1
2 INDICATES REPLICATE 2
3 INDICATES REPLICATE 3
4 INDICATES REPLICATE 4
P INDICATES POOLED SAMPLE
I INDICATES INITIAL SAMPLE OF ORIGINAL MATERIAL

Variable: EST
E INDICATES A POOLED SAMPLE WAS USED TO ESTIMATE THE
ASHFREE PROPORTION.
BLANK INDICATES ACTUAL SAMPLE WAS ASHED
? INDICATES QUESTIONAL SAMPLE, MAY HAVE BEEN LOST
P INDICATES POOLED SAMPLE

Variable: NIR_EST
E INDICATES A POOLED SAMPLE WAS USED TO ESTIMATE AN ASH
FREE PORTION
BLANK INDICATES ACTUAL SAMPLE WAS ASHED

Variable: COMMENT
X BAG TORN WITH OBVIOUS SAMPLE LOSS
T BAG TORN WITH SAMPLE LOSS UNKNOWN
U TAG DISCONNECTED; ID QUESTIONABLE
F FOREIGN MATERIAL IN SAMPLE (I.E. ROCKS)
M SAMPLE MISSING
D TAG DISCONNECTED; ID GOOD
XF TORN BAG WITH SAMPLE LOSS AND FOREIGN MATERIAL
TF TORN BAG SAMPLE LOSS UNKNOWN AND FOREIGN MATERIAL
TU TORN BAG AND TAG DISCONNECTED
TD TORN BAG LOSS UNKNOWN; ID GOOD
TFU TORN BAG WITH FOREIGN MATERIAL TAG DISCONNECTED; ID
QUESTIONABLE
TX TORN BAG WITH OBVIOUS SAMPLE LOSS
UF TAG DISCONNECTED; ID QUESTIONABLE PLUS FOREIGN MATERIAL
UT TAG DISCONNECTED; ID QUESTIONABLE AND TORN BAG
UX TAG DISCONNECTED; ID QUESTIONABLE AND TORN BAG WITH
OBVIOUS SAMPLE LOSS
XFU TORN BAG WITH SAMPLE LOSS AND FOREIGN MATERIAL PLUS
TAG DISCONNECTED

Notes: Only the Arctic LTER data is presented here. See http://www.fsl.orst.edu/lter/research/intersite/lidet.htm for all the data. This is the format 9 file.

Reference Citations: Melillo. 1988. Foliar analysis using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Can. J. For. Res. 18:6-11

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Data Type Units DateTime Format Code Information Missing Value Code
StCode THIS DATA IS FOR THE LIDET INTERSITE DECOMPOSITION EXPERIMENT text        
Format THIS DATA IS THE INITIAL AND FINAL MASS DATA text        
Site THE SITE WHERE THE LITTER WAS INCUBATED text        
Rep REPLICATE IN FIELD, 1-4; P FOR POOLED; I FOR INITIAL SAMPLE text        
Time THE TIME THE LITTER WILL BE HARVESTED. text        
Species THE SPECIES OF THE LITTER text        
Type THE SUBSTRATE OF LITTER (E.G., LEAVES, ROOTS, WOOD) text        
NIR_NUM UNIQUE SAMPLE NUMBER text        
Mesh THE MESH SIZE OF THE BAG. FOR LEAVES THIS CORRESPONDS TO THE TOP SIDE OF THE BAG; ALL THE BOTTOMS WERE 0.1 MM FOR LEAVES. text        
DateOut THE DATE THE BAGS WERE PLACED OUT IN THE FIELD. datetime   mm/dd/yyyy   #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
IADW THE INITIAL AIR DRY WEIGHT OF THE CONTENTS OF THE LITTERBAG, OR THE WOODEN DOWEL number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
IODW THE INITIAL OVEN DRY WEIGHT OF THE CONTENTS OF THE LITTERBAG, OR THE WOODEN DOWEL number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
DateIn THE DATE THE LITTER BAG WAS HARVESTED FROM THE FIELD. datetime   mm/dd/yyyy   #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
FWW THE FINAL WET WEIGHT OF THE LITTER BAG CONTENTS. number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
FOW THE FINAL OVEN DRY WEIGHT (55c) OF THE LITTER BAG CONTENTS. number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
Length THE LENGTH OF WOODEN DOWELS, THE SUM OF ABOVE AND BELOW LENGTH SHOULD BE 61.0 CM number centimeter     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
IADW1 WOODEN DOWEL VARIABLE, INITIAL AIR DRY WEIGHT FOR ABOVE OR BELOW PART OF DOWEL (APPLIES ONLY TO TYPE 'A' OR 'B') number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
IODW1 WOODEN DOWEL VARIABLE, INITIAL OVEN DRY WEIGHT FOR ABOVE OR BELOW PART OF DOWEL (APPLIES ONLY TO TYPE 'A' OR 'B') number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
IASH PERCENT INITIAL ASH CONTENT number percent     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
FASH PERCENT FINAL ASH CONTENT number percent     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
IAFW INITIAL ASH FREE WEIGHT (IOW*IASH) number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
FAFW FINAL ASH FREE WEIGHT (FOW*FASH) number gram     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
PRM PERCENT REMAINING MASS number percent     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
PAFRM PERCENT ASH FREE REMAINING MASS number percent     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
KDW DECAY RATE DRY WEIGHT BASIS IOW/FOW number dimensionless     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
KAFW DECAY RATE ASH FREE WEIGHT BASIS FAFW/IAFW number dimensionless     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
Type1 INDICATED SUBSTRATE (W FOR DOWEL, INSTEAD OF 'A' OR 'B') text        
TimeOut TIME IN YEARS THAT LITTER SAMPLE INCUBATED IN FIELD number number     #N/A=Missing or Not Measured
Comment COMMENT FROM FIELD SHEETS text        
Flag FLAGGED AS UNUSUAL OUTLIER text        

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