LTER network Toolik Field Station MBLhome page

Weather at Toolik

Toolik Weather Graphs

Arctic LTER Weather Stations

Toolik Webcam

Animated Gif of yesterday's Webcam

Arctic LTER Inhouse login

Arctic LTER Database

Arctic LTER Database

Conditions of Use

The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, educational, government, recreational, or other not-for-profit professional purposes. The Data User is permitted to produce and distribute derived works from this dataset provided that they are released under the same license terms as those accompanying this Data Set. Any other uses for the Data Set or its derived products will require explicit permission from the dataset owner.
2 ) Redistribution. The data are provided for use by the Data User. The metadata and this license must accompany all copies made and be available to all users of this Data Set. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set beyond this collaboration sphere.
3 ) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly cite the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier. For example:

Shaver, G. 1989. Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska. Arctic LTER, Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, Ma 02543. 1989gsttbm 

4 ) Acknowledgement. The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed significantly to its content. Acknowledgements should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers. For example:

Data sets were provided by the Arctic LTER. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants #DEB-981022, 9211775, 8702328; #OPP-9911278, 9911681, 9732281, 9615411, 9615563, 9615942, 9615949, 9400722, 9415411, 9318529; #BSR 9019055, 8806635, 8507493.

5 ) Notification. The Data User will notify the Data Set Contact when any derivative work or publication based on or derived from the Data Set is distributed. The Data User will provide the data contact with two reprints of any publications resulting from use of the Data Set and will provide copies, or on-line access to, any derived digital products. Notification will include an explanation of how the Data Set was used to produce the derived work.
6 ) Collaboration. The Data Set has been released in the spirit of open scientific collaboration. Data Users are thus strongly encouraged to consider consultation, collaboration and/or co-authorship with the Data Set Creator.

By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.


While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data
Dataset ID:2006_MAT_DHT_96NPGraze_FWEB_JCM.02
Dataset Title:Belowground foodweb biomass from moist acidic tundra and dry heath tundra nutrient addition and herbivore exclusion plots (since 1996) sampled Summer 2006
Investigator 1: 
First Name:John
Last Name:Moore
Organization:Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory
Address line 2:200 West Lake Street
Address line 3:
City:Fort Collins
Zip Code:80523-1499
Investigator 2: 
First Name:Rodney
Last Name:Simpson
Organization:Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory
Address line 2:200 West Lake Street
City:Fort Collins
Zip Code:80523-1499
Investigator 3: 
First Name:Greg
Last Name:Selby
Organization:Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory
Address line 2:200 West Lake Street
City:Fort Collins
Zip Code:80523-1499
Investigator 4: 
First Name:Karl
Last Name:Wyant
Organization:Arizona State University School of Life Sciences
Address line 2:PO Box 874501
Zip Code:85287-4501
Associate Investigators:
Keywords:moist acidic tundra, dry heath tundra, microbial biomass, protozoa, nematodes, arthropods, Toolik, fertilization, MAT
Abstract:Biomass of belowground community groups (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, rotifers, tardigrades) determined for organic soils in moist acidic tundra and dry heath tundra.
For questions about the Metadata and data contact the Investigators.
For information about this web site contact:
Arctic LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7496
Online URL:
Data File URL
Data File Name 2006_MAT_DHT_96NPGraze_FWEB_JCM.02
Beginning Date 6/6/2006
End Date 7/25/2006
Number of Data Records 88
Other Files to Reference
Availability Status Type 1
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description
Log of Changes: Metadata updated to new form and uploaded Nov. 2013 (JD)
File renamed to conform with other data of similar nature(JD Dec2013)
Location Name LTER Moist Acidic Tussock Tundra LTER Heath Tundra Select Site or enter New One  
Geographic Description LTER Heath Tundra LTER Heath Tundra Enter Description  
Location Bounding Box        
West Bounding Coordinate        
East Bounding Coordinate        
North Bounding Coordinate        
South Bounding Coordinate        
OR if single point location        
Latitude 68.641727 68.641727 In Decimal Degrees  
Longitude -149.586653 -149.586653 In Decimal Degrees  
Elevation 724 724 In Meters  
Link to Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map    
Organisms studied
Methods:On 6 June and 25 July 2006, organic horizon soil samples (10x10x15cm in MAT, 10x10x3cm in DHT) were collected from control and N+P treatments from Moist Acidic Tundra and Dry Heath Tundra grazing plots established in 1996. We collected two subsamples from both tussock and inter-tussock areas in each MAT plot, and two subsamples per Dry Heath plot. We determined percent moisture for all soils and quantified the biomass of members of the belowground community.
Direct count slides for microbial biomass estimation were made using the methods of Bloem (1995) as adapted by Frey et al. (1999). 10ml of a soil solution diluted 1:100 (5g initial soil mass) was added to each of 5 6mm diameter wells on a slide. Bacteria slides were stained with DTAF (5-(4, 6 dichlorotriazin-2-yl) aminofluorescein) and Fungi slides were stained with calcifluor M2R fluorescence brightener. Direct counts were made using epifluoresence microscopy. Bacteria were counted, 10 images per well, 2 wells per sample. Fungal hyphal length (Lodge and Ingham 1991) was estimated using the formula of Newman (1966): R=pNA/2H where N=number of hyphae crossing transect line, A=area of well, H=total length of transects. 2 wells, each with 10 images, 3 transects per image were used.
Protozoa densities were estimated from 10 g soil samples using Most Probable Number MPN (Darbyshire et al. 1974; Ingham 1994). 10 g soil was serially diluted 10-1-10-6. Using a 24-well tissue culture plate, four replicate wells of each of the six dilutions were created by adding 0.5 ml soil solution to the wells (Rusterholz and Mallory 1994). E. coli, a bacterium food source for protozoa was added to each of the wells. Protozoa were separated into the broad categories of Amoebae, Flagellates and Ciliates.
Nematodes were isolated from 20 g of soil samples using Baermann Funnels (Hall 1996). Nematodes were preserved in formalin, counted and identified to functional group based on the morphology of the stoma and stylet (Niles 1994).
Rotifers, Tardigrades, and Enchytraeids were isolated from 5 g of soil using the methods of Peters et al. (1993).
Microarthropods were heat-extracted into 70% ethanol from soils using Tullgren funnels (Moore et al. 2000). The intact sample pairs from each plot were wrapped together in cotton cheesecloth, weighed, placed over a funnel, and heated with a 9-W
incandescent lightbulb for 5 days until dry.
Bloem, J. 1995. Fluorescent staining of microbes for total direct counts. In A. D. L. Akkermans, J. D. van Elsas, and F. J. de Bruijn (ed.), Molecular microbial ecology manual. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 1-12.
Darbyshire, J. F., R. F. Wheatley, M. P. Greaves, and R. H. E. Inkson. 1974. A rapid micromethod for estimating bacteria and protozoa in soils. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 11:465-475.
Frey, S.D., E.T. Elliott and K. Paustian. 1999. Bacterial and fungal biomass in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems along two climatic gradients. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 31: 573-585.
Hall, G.S. 1996. Methods for the examination of organismal diversity in soils and sediments. CAB International: New York.
Ingham, E.R. 1994. Protozoa. In: R.W. Weaver et al. (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2: Microbiological and Biochemical properties. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., USA. pp. 491-512.
Lodge, D.J. and E.R. Ingham. 1991. A comparison of agar film techniques for estimating fungal biovolumes in litter and soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 34: 131-144.
Moore, J. C., B. B. Tripp, R. T. Simpson, and D. C. Coleman. 2000. Springtails in the classroom: Collembola as model
organisms for inquiry-based laboratories. American Biology Teacher 62:512519.
Newman, E.L. 1966. A method of estimating the total length of root in a sample. J. Appl. Ecol., 3: 139-145.
Niles, R. 1994. Identification of nematode feeding groups. Unpublished manuscript.
Peters, U., Koste, W., and Westheide W. 1993. A quantitative method to extract moss-dwelling rotifers. Hydrobiologia 255-256: 330-341.
Rusterholz, K.J. and L.M. Mallory. 1994. Density, activity, and diversity of bacteria indigenous to a karstic aquifer. Microbial Ecology 28: 79-99.

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Data Type Units DateTime Format Code Information Missing Value Code
Site LTER site text        
Date Date Samples were collected from field datetime   DD-MMM-YYYY    
Block Arctic LTER blocks text        
Fertilization Control vs. N+P since 1996 text        
Grazing Control vs. Herbivore exclusion since 1996 text        
Location Tussock vs. inter-Tussock text        
Bacteria mg bacteria/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Fungi mg fungal hyphae/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Flagellates mg flagellates/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Amoebae mg amoebae/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Ciliates mg ciliates/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Bacterivorous Nematodes mg bacterivorous nematodes/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Fungivorous Nematodes mg fungivorous nematodes/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Free Phytophagous Nematodes mg free phytophagous nematodes/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Root-Associated Phytophagous Nematodes mg root associated phytophagous nematodes/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Total Phytophagous Nematodes mg total phytophagous nematode biomass/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Omnivorous Nematodes mg omnivorous nematodes/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Predatory Nematodes mg predatory nematodes/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Total Rotifers mg rotifers/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Tardigrades mg tardigrades/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Enchytraeids mg enchytraeids/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Predatory Mites mg predatory mites/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Nematophagous Mites mg nematophagous mites/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Collembola mg collembola/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Cryptostigs mg cryptostigs/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Non-Cryptostigs mg non-cryptostigs/g dry soil number milligramPerGram     -9999 = missing
Please contact with questions, comments, or for technical assistance regarding this web site.