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Conditions of Use

The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, educational, government, recreational, or other not-for-profit professional purposes. The Data User is permitted to produce and distribute derived works from this dataset provided that they are released under the same license terms as those accompanying this Data Set. Any other uses for the Data Set or its derived products will require explicit permission from the dataset owner.
2 ) Redistribution. The data are provided for use by the Data User. The metadata and this license must accompany all copies made and be available to all users of this Data Set. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set beyond this collaboration sphere.
3 ) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly cite the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier. For example:

Shaver, G. 1989. Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska. Arctic LTER, Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, Ma 02543. 1989gsttbm 

4 ) Acknowledgement. The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed significantly to its content. Acknowledgements should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers. For example:

Data sets were provided by the Arctic LTER. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants #DEB-981022, 9211775, 8702328; #OPP-9911278, 9911681, 9732281, 9615411, 9615563, 9615942, 9615949, 9400722, 9415411, 9318529; #BSR 9019055, 8806635, 8507493.

5 ) Notification. The Data User will notify the Data Set Contact when any derivative work or publication based on or derived from the Data Set is distributed. The Data User will provide the data contact with two reprints of any publications resulting from use of the Data Set and will provide copies, or on-line access to, any derived digital products. Notification will include an explanation of how the Data Set was used to produce the derived work.
6 ) Collaboration. The Data Set has been released in the spirit of open scientific collaboration. Data Users are thus strongly encouraged to consider consultation, collaboration and/or co-authorship with the Data Set Creator.

By accepting this Data Set, the Data User agrees to abide by the terms of this agreement. The Data Owner shall have the right to terminate this agreement immediately by written notice upon the Data User's breach of, or non-compliance with, any of its terms. The Data User may be held responsible for any misuse that is caused or encouraged by the Data User's failure to abide by the terms of this agreement.


While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data, Dataset via LTER Data Poral
Dataset ID:2004-2009gscoversp.09
Dataset Title:Plant % cover by species for the ITEX CO2 flux survey plots at Toolik, Alaska; Abisko, Sweden; Svalbard, Norway; Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland; and Barrow, Alaska 2004-2009
Investigator 1: 
First Name:Gus
Last Name:Shaver
Organization:The Ecosystems Center
Address line 2:Marine Biological Laboratory
Address line 3:7 MBL Street
City:Woods Hole
Zip Code:02543
Investigator 2: 
First Name:Mark
Last Name:van Wijk
Address line 2:
Address line 3:
Zip Code:
Investigator 3: 
First Name:Lorna
Last Name:Street
Investigator 4: 
First Name:Brooke
Last Name:Kaye
Investigator 5: 
First Name:Jim
Last Name:Laundre
Investigator 6: 
First Name:Mathew
Last Name:Williams
Investigator 7: 
First Name:Cath
Last Name:Thompson
Investigator 8: 
First Name:Carrie
Last Name:McCalley
Investigator 9: 
First Name:Beth
Last Name:Bernhardt
Investigator 10: 
First Name:Bob
Last Name:Douma
Investigator 11: 
First Name:Celine
Last Name:Ronfort
Investigator 12: 
First Name:Kerry
Last Name:Dinsmore
Investigator 13: 
First Name:Robert
Last Name:Bell
Investigator 14: 
First Name:Peter
Last Name:van Buuren
Investigator 15: 
First Name:Craig
Last Name:Menzies
Investigator 16: 
First Name:Jen
Last Name:Peters
Investigator 17: 
First Name:Scott
Last Name:Graham
Associate Investigators:
Keywords:plant cover, plant species, populations
Abstract:Estimated aerial plant % cover by species in flux plots measured during the ITEX circumarctic flux survey 2004-2006. Flux plots were located in the Toolik Lake LTER fertilization experiment in Alaska; at Imnavait Creek, Alaska; at Paddus, Latnjajaure and the Stepps site near Abisko in northern Sweden; at various sites in Adventdalen, Svalbard; in the Zackenberg valley, Northeast Greenland; at BEO near Barrow, Alaska and at the Anaktuvuk River Burn in Alaska.

For questions about the Metadata and data contact the Investigators.
For information about this web site contact:
Arctic LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7496
Online URL:
Data File URL
Data File Name 2004-2009gscoversp.dat
Beginning Date 6/28/2004
End Date 8/17/2009
Number of Data Records 2756
Other Files to Reference
Availability Status Type 1
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description
Log of Changes: Version 1: Checked file and created eml and html files. Feb 2006 Jiml Version 2: Added Zackenberg 2006 cover data and updated metadat.txt with new site description, references, files to reference etc. Added a new identifier column called "plot size" because 2006 data include measurements made on 0.3m x 0.3m plots. Changed date in file name from 2005 to 2006. Oct 2006 LStreet
Version 3: Added LTERNET Data Access server proxy for Excel and comma delimited data files.
Version 4: Updated LTERNET Data Access server proxy link for Excel and comma delimited data files. Changed from knb to das in url.
Version 5: Added Toolik and Barrow 2009 data. Changed file name from 2006 to 2009.
Version 6: Updated the metadata form and eml is 2.10 JimL Nov12
Version 7: Updated to newer metadata with site sheet. CH March 2013.
Version 4: Corrected eml excel file name wrong extension. JimL 16May13
Version 9: Corrected Distrubution URL. It had xlsfiles in the path. Jim L 19Jun14
RESEARCH LOCATION:                                            
Location Name Toolik Imnavait Creek Abisko Stepps Abisko Paddus Abisko Latnjajare Adventdalen Svalbard, Norway Zackenberg Greenland Barrow Alaska Anaktuvuk River Burn Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One  
Geographic Description Toolik Lake (68 degrees 38N, 149 degrees 34W) Imnavait Creek (68 degrees 37N, 149 degrees 18W) Alaska, U.S. "Stepps" site (68 degrees 18N, 18 degrees 51E) near Abisko, Sweden. Paddus (68 degrees 19N, 18 degrees 51E) near Abisko, Sweden. Latnjajaure (68 degrees 21N, 18 degrees 30E) near Abisko, Sweden. Adventdalen (78 degrees 13N, 15 degrees 38E) Svalbard, Norway. Zackenberg research area zone 1a (7428 N, 2034 W), Northeast Greenland. Barrow ( 71 18' N, 156 36' W) Alaska, USA. Anaktuvuk River Burn (68 56-59' N, 150 12-16' W) Alaska, USA. Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description  
Location Bounding Box                                            
West Bounding Coordinate                                            
East Bounding Coordinate                                            
North Bounding Coordinate                                            
South Bounding Coordinate                                            
OR if single point location                                            
Latitude 68.62405 68.6167 68.3 68.3167 68.35 78.2166666666667 74.4666666666667 71.31 68.9 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Longitude -149.61058 -149.31 18.85 18.85 18.5 15.6333333333333 -19.4333333333333 -156.6 -150.2 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Elevation 719 884 In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters  
Link to Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map View on Google Map                          
Organisms studied
Imnavait Creek, Alaska 2004: cover estimates were made once on the 15 flux plots along the topographic sequence of the west facing slope of Imnavait Creek catchment.

Toolik Lake, Alaska 2004: cover estimates were made once on the 20 flux plots in treatment (N +P) and control blocks of the LTER terrestrial fertilization experiment at Toolik Lake, including the moist acidic tussock, non-acidic tussock, non acidic non-tussock, inlet wet sedge and heath sites.

Abisko, Sweden 2004. Cover estimates were made once on the 11 plots at the Stepps site, 13 plots at Paddus and 12 plots at Latnjajaure.

Abisko, Sweden 2005. Cover estimates were made on 15 flux plots at the Stepps site each time flux measurements were made (3 times through June/early July and once in mid August).

Svalbard 2005. Cover estimates were made once on 41 flux plots at various sites in Adventdalen.

Zackenberg 2006. Data were collected on 35 1 x 1m plots and 25 0.3 x 0.3m plots across a range of vegetation types. 13 of the 0.3 x 0.3m plots were located within 1m x 1m plots (identified by plot name with suffix "b1, b2 or b3"), the remainder were independent of the 1 x 1m plots (B14-25). Measurements were made from 8 July through 1 Aug 2006.

Toolik, Alaska 2009: Data were collected on nine 1m x 1m flux plots, three in each vegetation type. Vegetation types included moist acidic tundra (MAT), dry heath (HTH) and wet sedge (WSG). Each plot was measured at approximately 2 weeks intervals from mid-June to mid-August 2009.

Anaktuvuk River Burn, Alaska 2009: Data was collected on five 0.7m x 0.7m flux plots along a burn severity gradient during mid-June 2009.

Barrow, Alaska 2009: Data was collected on thirteen 0.7m 0.7m flux plots along a moisture gradient during late-July to early-August 2009.

Absolute percent cover by species was estimated for each 1m x 1m ITEX flux plot (i.e. total cover can be > 100%). In 2004, we split the 1m x 1m flux plots into 25 sub plots using a grid, then estimated % cover in each of the sub plots individually and calculated an average. In 2005, 2006 and 2009 we used the same 1m x 1m grid but counted running totals of percentages of each species in squares 1 thru 25 (only the total cover for the flux plot is given). For the 0.3m x 0.3m plots in 2006 we estimated cover once for the plot as a whole. For the 0.7m x 0.7m plots in 2009 we used a smaller version of the same grid and counted the running totals of the percentages of each species' cover for the whole plot.

Each spp is assigned to a growth form, abbreviated as follows:

D = deciduous shrub
E = evergreen shrub
F = forb
G = grass
GRM = graminoid
S = sedge/rush
P = pteridophyte
B = bryophyte (mosses and liverworts)
L = lichen
U = unclassified
W = water
R = rock
X = litter or bare or crust

++ = plus other spp

Where many graminoids were growing together it was often difficult to judge the individual percentages, so only the total for the growth form is given; the main species present are listed in the comments column.


FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: Gus Shaver, The Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA, 02543, USA

Bay, C. (1998) Vegetation mapping of Zackenberg Valley Northeast Greenland. Danish Polar Center.

Shaver, G.R., Street, L.E., Rastetter, E.B., van Wijk, M.T., Williams, M. (2007) Functional convergence in regulation of net CO2 flux in heterogeneous tundra landscapes in Alaska and Sweden. Journal of Ecology 95:802-817.

Street, L.E., Shaver, G.R., Williams, M., van Wijk, M.T. (2007) What is the relationship between changes in canopy leaf area and changes in photosynthetic CO2 flux in arctic ecosystems? Journal of Ecology 95: 139-150.

Williams, M., Street, L.E., van Wijk, M.T., and Shaver, G.R. (2006) Identifying Differences in Carbon Exchange among Arctic Ecosystem Types. Ecosystems 9:288-304.

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Data Type Units DateTime Format Code Information Missing Value Code
YEAR Year of percent cover measurement datetime   YYYY    
DATE Date of percent cover measurement datetime   DD-MMM-YY    
SITE Abisko, Toolik, Svalbard, Zackenberg, Barrow, or AR Burn. text        
GROUP Location of flux plots at each site text        
PLOT Individual plot identifier text        
TREAT Control or fertilised with N and P fertiliser text        
PHASE Measurement series (round of measurement within each year) text        
PLOT SIZE Plot size of 1m x 1m , 0.3m x 0.3m , or 0.7m x 0.7m text        
SPECIES CODE 6 letter species abbreviation, SEE "2003-2009gsspecieslist.xls" text        
FUNCT GROUP functional group text        
COVER average estimated cover number percent      
COMMENTS comments text        

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