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The re-use of scientific data has the potential to greatly increase communication, collaboration and synthesis within and among disciplines, and thus is fostered, supported and encouraged. Permission to use this dataset is granted to the Data User free of charge subject to the following terms:

1) Acceptable use. Use of the dataset will be restricted to academic, research, educational, government, recreational, or other not-for-profit professional purposes. The Data User is permitted to produce and distribute derived works from this dataset provided that they are released under the same license terms as those accompanying this Data Set. Any other uses for the Data Set or its derived products will require explicit permission from the dataset owner.
2 ) Redistribution. The data are provided for use by the Data User. The metadata and this license must accompany all copies made and be available to all users of this Data Set. The Data User will not redistribute the original Data Set beyond this collaboration sphere.
3 ) Citation. It is considered a matter of professional ethics to acknowledge the work of other scientists. Thus, the Data User will properly cite the Data Set in any publications or in the metadata of any derived data products that were produced using the Data Set. Citation should take the following general form: Creator, Year of Data Publication, Title of Dataset, Publisher, Dataset identifier. For example:

Shaver, G. 1989. Above ground biomass in acidic tussock tundra experimental site, 1989, Arctic LTER, Toolik, Alaska. Arctic LTER, Marine Biological Lab, Woods Hole, Ma 02543. 1989gsttbm http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/arc/terrest/biomass/index.shtml 

4 ) Acknowledgement. The Data User should acknowledge any institutional support or specific funding awards referenced in the metadata accompanying this dataset in any publications where the Data Set contributed significantly to its content. Acknowledgements should identify the supporting party, the party that received the support, and any identifying information such as grant numbers. For example:

Data sets were provided by the Arctic LTER. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants #DEB-981022, 9211775, 8702328; #OPP-9911278, 9911681, 9732281, 9615411, 9615563, 9615942, 9615949, 9400722, 9415411, 9318529; #BSR 9019055, 8806635, 8507493.

5 ) Notification. The Data User will notify the Data Set Contact when any derivative work or publication based on or derived from the Data Set is distributed. The Data User will provide the data contact with two reprints of any publications resulting from use of the Data Set and will provide copies, or on-line access to, any derived digital products. Notification will include an explanation of how the Data Set was used to produce the derived work.
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While substantial efforts are made to ensure the accuracy of data and documentation contained in this Data Set, complete accuracy of data and metadata cannot be guaranteed. All data and metadata are made available "as is". The Data User holds all parties involved in the production or distribution of the Data Set harmless for damages resulting from its use or interpretation.

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data, Dataset via LTER Data Poral
Dataset ID:95gsbnana.05
Dataset Title:Data on weights and lengths from retrospective growth analysis of different stem age classes of Betula nana ramets from the Arctic LTER Nutrient and Warming manipulations in mosit acidic tussock tundra at 1995, Toolik Lake, AK.
Investigator 1: 
First Name:Gus
Last Name:Shaver
Organization:Marine Biological Lab
Address line 2:7 MBL St.
Address line 3:
City:Woods Hole
State:Marine Biological Lab
Zip Code:02543
Country:USA
Investigator 2: 
First Name:Syndonia
Last Name:Bret-Harte
Organization:Institute of Arctic Biology
Address line 2:Room 311, Irving 1 Building
City:Faribanks
State:AK
Zip Code:99775
Country:USA
Investigator 3: 
First Name:Jill
Last Name:Johnstone
Organization:
Address line 2:
Address line 3:
City:
State:
Zip Code:
Country:
Investigator 4: 
First Name:Jennifer
Last Name:Zoerner
Investigator 5: 
First Name:Andreas
Last Name:Chavez
Investigator 6: 
First Name:Joanna
Last Name:Wagner
Investigator 7: 
First Name:Tad
Last Name:Gunkelman
Associate Investigators:
Keywords:moist tussock tundra, Betula nana, growth, secondary stem growth, populations, disturbance
Abstract:This data file contains the data on weights and lengths from retrospective growth analysis of different stem age classes of Betula nana ramets from the Arctic LTER Nutrient and Warming manipulations in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake.
For questions about the Metadata and data contact the Investigators.
For information about this web site contact:
Arctic LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7496
Email: arc_im@mbl.edu
Online URL: http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/ARC/
DATA FILE INFORMATION:
Data File URL http://metacat.lternet.edu/das/dataAccessServlet?docid=knb-lter-arc.1414&urlTail=terrest/phengwth/data/95gsbnana.csv
Data File Name 95gsbnana
Beginning Date 6/1/1995
End Date 9/1/1995
Number of Data Records 752
Other Files to Reference
Availability Status
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description
Log of Changes: DATA FILE ENTERED BY: Syndonia Bret-Harte
Version 2 Updated the atttributes and added DAS control
Version 3: Upadte LTERNET Data Access server proxy link for Excel and comma delimited data files. Changed from knb to das in url.
Version 4: Updated metadata form to newer version (without site sheet). CH 24 Jan 2013 Updated to newer metadata with site sheet. CH March 2013.
Version 5: Checked keywords against the LTER network preferred list and replaced non-preferred terms. Jim L 17Feb14
 
RESEARCH LOCATION:                                            
Location Name LTER Moist Acidic Tussock Tundra Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One Select Site or enter New One  
Geographic Description Moist Acidic Tussock Tundra LTER Experimental plots Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description Enter Description  
Location Bounding Box                                            
West Bounding Coordinate                                            
East Bounding Coordinate                                            
North Bounding Coordinate                                            
South Bounding Coordinate                                            
OR if single point location                                            
Latitude 68.624052 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Longitude -149.610586 In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees In Decimal Degrees  
Elevation 750 In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters In Meters  
Link to Google Map View on Google Map                                          
                                             
 
TAXONOMIC COVERAGE:
Organisms studied Betula nana
 
Methods:The experiment is the LTER nutrient by warming factorial treatments, which has 4 randomized blocks (Shaver et al.?). We randomly collected 3 individual ramets of Betula nana from each treatment within each block. The most recent 15 years of growth were analyzed for each ramet. Stems were cut and cross-sections made by hand with a razor blade. Ages were determined by staining the sections with 1% phloroglucinol in 20% HCl and counting the growth rings using a compound light microscope at 100x magnification. Stems were separated into different age classes trying to get at least one piece with same age on both ends for each age class. Lengths and weights of pooled segments for a given age class were determined after drying samples at 70 degrees C for 48 hours.
Because no external bud scars were usually visible, the boundary between age classes of stems usually could not be known with certainty. The lengths and weights of stem pieces that overlapped one year boundary were assigned half to one age and half to the next. Lengths and weights of pieces that overlapped more than one age class were assigned to the different age classes by dividing by one less than the number of years covered, and assigning half that amount to the two end pieces and the whole amount to intervening years, to avoid a bias toward the end pieces. When the end of the piece was the bottom of a branch, and therefore that boundary was known with certainty, the piece was divided by x.5, where x is one less than the number of years that the piece overlapped. Half that amount was assigned to the upper part of the segment, where the boundary was not known with certainty, while the whole amount was assigned to the other year classes covered by that piece, including the oldest piece. These procedures avoided a bias in assigning weight and length disproportionately to the years where a cut was made.
Betula nana makes two types of stem segments, short shoots and long shoots. Long shoots could be aged by making stem cross-sections, but short shoots could not because they have so little secondary growth. However, the maximum age of short shoots is one year less than the long shoot to which they are attached. Short shoot weight and length was assigned by dividing the total weight or length by the maximum age of those shoots and assigning that to each year class up to that age. Short shoots occasionally convert to long shoots, in which case they put on secondary growth and behave like a long shoot from then on (but obviously the stem segments covering the period of short shoot growth do not increase in length). These conversions from short to long shoots were classified separately in the data table.

Notes: Betula nana rep 1 from block 3 was excluded because it was diseased. No other data is missing. Data in columns with stippled headings were measured data, other columns are calculated from that data. Data from pieces that were overlapping age classes but were not conversions are entered in measured data columns as additions onto the original numbers (e.g. the formula shows =x+y+z).

See paper: Bret-Harte, M.S., G.R. Shaver, and F.S. Chapin III. 2002. Primary and secondary stem growth in arctic shrubs: implications for community response to environmental change. Ecology 90: 251-267.

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Data Type Units DateTime Format Code Information Missing Value Code
Treatmt Treatment (control, fertilized, greenhouse, greenhouse*fertilized) text        
Treatmt code Treatment coded numerically (1,2,3,4) text        
Block Block number (1-4) text        
Rep Replicate number (1-3) text        
Year Year when that stem age class was created datetime   yyyy    
Age Stem age classes, whose age is counted backward from the present in this study (1995 = year 0, 1994 = year 1, etc) number number      
total ls branches # of long shoot branches in that age class number number      
total struct branches # of long shoot branches + number of short shoot branches that subsequently converted into long shoots (conversions) in that age class number number      
Length, mm Length, in mm, of all long shoots in that age class number millimeter      
Wt, mg Weight, in mg, of all long shoots in that age class number milligram      
Age class Age classes that overlap one year boundary text        
LS boundary lnth (mm) Length in mm of all long shoot stem segments that overlap the given age classes number millimeter      
LS boundary lnth/2 Half of the variable just mentioned number millimeter      
total length LS (mm) Length + LS boundary length/2 for each age class (mm) number millimeter      
LS boundary wt (mg) Weight in mm of all long shoot stem segments that overlap the given age classes (mg) number milligram      
LS boundary wt/2 Half of the variable just mentioned number milligram      
total wt LS (mg) Weight + LS boundary weight/2 for each age class (mg) number milligram      
ls mm/segment total length of an age class divided by the number of long shoots in that age class number millimeter      
ls mg/segment total weight of an age class divided by the number of long shoots in that age class number milligram      
ls mg/mm total weight of an age class divided by the total length of that age class number dimensionless      
Age Age classes number number      
conversion # Number of branches that were converted short shoots in that age class number number      
conversion lnth (mm) Length of conversions in that age class (mm) = The sum of the total length of a conversion divided by the number of years it was a short shoot, for all conversions that were short shoots during that year. number millimeter      
conversion wt (mg) Weight of conversions in that age class (mg) = The sum of the total weight of a conversion divided by the number of years it was a short shoot, for all conversions that were short shoots in that year number milligram      
total # conversion events Total number of conversion events, from the maps. (Not all conversions were saved, so this number will not necessarily reflect the numbers in the "conversion #" column, which only refers to those conversions that were weighed and measured. number number      
# conversions post treatment (<=yr6) total number of conversion events (from the maps) that occurred after the LTER treatment began. number number      
Total lnth struct branches total length of structural branches = sum of total length LS and conversion length for each age class number millimeter      
Total wt struct branches total weight of structural branches = sum of total weight LS and conversion weight for each age class number milligram      
str. mm/segment length per segment of structural branches, = total lnth struct divided by total number of structural branches number millimeter      
str. mg/segment weight per segment of structural branches = total wt struct divided by total number of structural branches number milligram      
str. mg/mm total weight of structural branches divided by total length of structural branches text        
Max age SS maximum age of short shoots, same as Age above number number      
#SS number of short shoots having that maximum age number number      
lnth SS (mm) total length of short shoots in that maximum age class (mm) number millimeter      
wt SS (mg) total weight of short shoots in that maximum age class (mg) number milligram      
#SS 1 yr span number of short shoots which covered a range of years not going to the present, but did not convert to long shoots (for example, the portion of a short shoot below a branch point into several more short shoots number number      
lnth SS 1yr span length of the short shoots covering a range of years not going to the present (see note for # SS 1-year span above) number millimeter      
wt SS 1 yr span weight of short shoots covering a range of years not going to the present (see note for # SS 1-year span, above) number milligram      
ss lnth/# length of short shoots in a maximum age class divided by the number in that class number millimeter      
ss lnth/yr average length of short shoots per year = length of short shoots in a maximum age class divided by the age of that class number millimeter      
ss lnth/#/yr length of short shoots in a maximum age class divided by the number of shoots in that class and the age of the class number millimeter      
total surviving ss lnth/yr The sum of the average short shoot length per year from that age to the oldest living short shoots, plus any short shoot lengths from the "1-year span" short shoots. This is the total amount of short shoot length put on in a given year. As an example, the short shoot length put on in year 3 will be the average length per year of the maximum age 3 short shoots, and also the contributions in year 3 from the maximum age 4, 5, 6,... etc. short shoots, since they would also be living and growing in year 3, but not the 1 or 2 year old short shoots, since they hadn't been formed yet. number millimeter      
ss wt/# weight of short shoots in a maximum age class divided by the number in that class number milligram      
ss wt/yr average weight of short shoots per year = weight of short shoots in a maximum age class divided by the age of that class number milligram      
ss wt/#/yr weigh of short shoots in a maximum age class divided by the number of shoots in that class and the age of the class number milligram      
total surviving ss wt/yr The sum of the average short shoot weight per year from that age to the oldest living short shoots, plus any short shoot weights from the "1-year span" short shoots. This is the total amount of short shoot weight put on in a given year. As an example, the short shoot weight put on in year 3 will be the average weight per year of the maximum age 3 short shoots, and also the contributions in year 3 from the maximum age 4, 5, 6,... etc. short shoots, since they would also be living and growing in year 3, but not the 1 or 2 year old short shoots, since they hadn't been formed yet. number milligram      
totl#surviving SS/yr The number of currently surviving short shoots that were growing in a given year. Calculated analogously to the total surviving SS weight and number per year, as the sum of all short shoots of a given age up to the oldest surviving short shoots, as all of those would be growing during that year. number number      
Conversion lnth + SS lnth (mm) Length of conversions plus total surviving short shoot length in that year number millimeter      
Conversion wt + SS wt (mg) Weight of conversions plus total surviving short shoot weight in that year text        
ages with ss the values of the age classes that had living short shoots, used to calculate the next variable... number number      
max age ss (yr) the age of the oldest living short shoot for that ramet number number      
Total CY wt (mg) weight of the year 0 (current year's) leaves and stems (mg) number milligram      
new SS (age 0) the number of short shoots initiated in the current year number number      
Total living SS the total number of living short shoots, of all ages number number      
year 0 ls the number of long shoots initiated in the current year number number      
ls/tvs the number of year 0 long shoots divided by the sum of year 0 long shoots and total living SS number dimensionless      
ls/new tvs the number of year 0 long shoots divided by the sum of year 0 long shoots and year 0 short shoots number dimensionless      
total lgp (veg+inf) The total number of living growing points = sum of year 0 long shoots, total living short shoots, and inflorescences that were not included in one of the preceding categories. (Current year's inflorescences were not included in current year's short or long shoots, but next year's inflorescence buds were included in current year's long or short shoots) number number      
Total weight(ss + ls) The total weight of structural branches plus total surviving ss weight per year number milligram      
Total length (ss + ls) The total length of structural branches plus total surviving ss lnth per year number millimeter      
Total number (ls +ss) The total number of short and long shoot branches, = total # structural branches + total #surviving ss per year number number      
cum. # ls cumulative number of long shoots segments = sum of the number of branches in that age class and the number in all younger age classes. number number      
cum. # struct. branches analogous sums for structural branches and total branches (total # (ls + ss)) number number      
cum. # total branches analogous sums for structural branches and total branches (total # (ls + ss)) number number      
cum lnth ls analogous sums for length values for the different age classes- see discussion for cumulative numbers, above. number millimeter      
cum lnth struct branches analogous sums for length values for the different age classes- see discussion for cumulative numbers, above. number millimeter      
cum lnth total branches analogous sums for length values for the different age classes- see discussion for cumulative numbers, above. number millimeter      
cum wt ls (mg) analogous sums for weight values for the different age classes- see discussion for cumulative numbers, above. number milligram      
cum wt struct. branches analogous sums for weight values for the different age classes- see discussion for cumulative numbers, above. number milligram      
cum wt total analogous sums for weight values for the different age classes- see discussion for cumulative numbers, above. number milligram      
cum ss wt/cum total wt the fraction of the total cumulative weight that is short shoots, = 1 - (cum wt struct/cum wt total) number milligram      
total# dead branches The total number of attached dead branches in the ramet (only those that have at least some long shoot component, not just dead short shoots) from the maps number number      
total# dead branches/total stem biomass The number of dead branches divided by the cumulative total weight of stems (year 15 of cum wt total) number number      
total # dead gp The total number of dead growing points, = sum of long shoots and short shoots on those attached dead branches (does not include dead short shoots attached to living stems) number number      
total #dead gp/total wt Total number of dead growing points divided by the cumulative total weight in year 15 number number      
total dead struct The total number of dead long shoots in the attached dead branches. Since the age structure of the dead branches was not determined, this is the number of long shoot branch points in the attached dead branches number number      
total dead struct/total wt As above, the dead structural branches divided by year 15 of cum wt total number dimensionless      
total live struct br. The number of branch points of long shoots in the living wood. Not the same as the number of segments in each age class, because sometimes long shoots convert back to being short shoots, in which case they do not show up in subsequent (younger) age classes. number number      
total dead struct/(total live + dead struct) the number of attached dead long shoot branch points divided by the total live and dead branch points, a measure of mortality number number      
Inflorescences total # The number of inflorescences, either current year or next year's buds, depending on the replicate number. number number      
Inforescences total wt The weight of inflorescences, either current year or next year's buds, depending on the replicate number. number milligram      
Inforescences wt/inf. The weight divided by number of inflorescences, either current year or next year's buds, depending on the replicate number. number milligram      
Dead: Age attached living the age of the living branch to which the dead was attached number number      
Dead: Age dead the age at the base of the dead branch, if known text number      
Dead: Lateral branch? (-1) -1 if the dead branch was a lateral, 0 if it was not text number      
Dead: total #gp total number of growing points (short and long shoots) on that dead branch text number      
Dead: total # struct the total number of long shoot branch points in that attached dead branch text number      
Dead: Years ago died: How long ago that attached branch system died, if known text number      
Dead: Total wt dead total weight of all attached dead branches text milligram      
Comments: Comments if needed for each row of data text        

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