Plum Island Ecosystems LTER Database

Acceptance and utilization of LTER data requires that:

(1) The Principal Investigator be sent a notice stating reasons for acquiring any data and a description of the publication intentions.
(2) The Principal Investigator of the data set be sent a copy of the report or manuscript prior to submission and be adequately cited in any resultant publications.
(3) A copy of any resultant publications should be sent to:

Principal Investigator
Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Laboratory
7 MBL St.
Woods Hole, MA 02543

Dataset URLs:METADATA: HTML, Rich Text, XML(EML compliant)
DATA: Comma Delimited, Excel file with Metadata and data
Dataset ID:HTL-PIE-YearlyIsotopeSurvey.03
Dataset Title:Stable isotope (carbon and nitrogen) data for functional groups in the Plum Island Sound Estuary.
Investigator 1: 
First Name:Linda
Last Name:Deegan
Address line 1:Ecosystems Center
Address line 2:MBL
Address line 3:7 MBL St
City:Woods Hole
State:MA
Zip Code:02543
Country:USA
Associate Investigators:Charles Hopkinson, Hap Garritt
Keywords:PIE LTER, organic matter, population dynamics, Massachusetts, stable isotope, nitrogen, carbon, food web, trophic, fish, invertebrates, organic, particulate, zooplankton, algae
Abstract:Stable isotopes of primary producers will be compared to stable isotopes of functional groups of organisms at primarily three sites within the estuary that have different dominant sources of organic matter. The three sites are: Lower (IBYC, SO-3, mouth of Plum Island Sound, 2-3 km upstream of the mouth of the estuary), Middle (OTL, PR-10.1, upper Sound, lower Parker, 8-11 km upstream of the mouth of the estuary) and Upper (P2, PR-21.9, upper Parker, above Middle Rd Bridge (22 km upstream of the mouth of the estuary). The Lower site is dominated by marine phytoplankton, the Middle site is dominated by a mixture of salt marsh and phytoplankton and the Upper site is dominated by oligohaline phytoplankton and fresh marsh.
Ten functional groups will be sampled at each site (Surface sediment, benthic diatoms, Nereis, mummichog, ribbed mussels, POM, blue mussels, pelagic copepods (Acartia), silversides and soft shell clams (Mya). Marsh, benthic algae and phytoplankton inputs or benthic vs. pelagic pathways will be evident in the isotopic signals of these functional groups. Samples will be collected between the middle and end of August to reflect a growing season using recently produced OM. Samples of 15 – 20 individuals will be pooled for analysis. Silversides will have 3 different pooled samples for determination of variance.
Contact: Plum Island Ecosystems LTER Information Manager
The Ecosystems Center
Marine Biological Lab
7 MBL St
Woods Hole, MA 02543
Phone (508) 289 7485
Email: pie_im@mbl.edu
Online URL: http://pie-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu
DATA FILE INFORMATION:
Data File URL http://ecosystems.mbl.edu/PIE/data/HTL/data/HTL-PIE-YearlyIsotopeSurvey.csv
Data File Name HTL-PIE-YearlyIsotopeSurvey
Beginning Date 8/23/1999
End Date 9/24/2008
Number of Data Records 257
Other Files to Reference
Availability Status Type 1
Quality Control Information
Maintenance Description Study conducted annually, mid August to early September
Log of Changes: Version 1, July 16, 2007, Data for 2005 and 2006 added, metadata updates using June 2007, Laundre Excel template and macro
Version 2, Dec. 17, 2009, added 2007/2008 data
Version 03: February 19, 2014, data and metadata updated to comply with importation to Drupal and LTER PASTA. Used MarcrosExportEML_HTML (working)pie_excel2007_Sep2013.xlsm 9/30/13 02:57 PM for QA/QC to EML 2.1.0
 
RESEARCH LOCATION: HTL-PR-P21.9-P2 HTL-PR-P13.8-P5 HTL-PR-P10.1-OTL HTL-SO-S8.2-Nelson HTL-SO-S3.0-IBYC  
Geographic Description Mud flat/river channel in upper Parker River, near Triton High School, Newbury, MA Mud flat/river channel on Parker River, below Mill River confluence and upstream of railroad bridge Sand flat/river channel on Parker River downstream of Old Town Landing, Newbury, MA Sand flat/Plum Island Sound near end Stackyard Rd, Rowley MA Intertidal sand flat in Plum Island Sound, across from Ipswich Bay Yacht Club, near Stage Island, Ipswich, MA  
Location Bounding Box            
West Bounding Coordinate            
East Bounding Coordinate            
North Bounding Coordinate            
South Bounding Coordinate            
OR if single point location            
Latitude 42.748905 42.755427 42.761256 42.746609 42.70975  
Longitude -70.91444 -70.870391 -70.831038 -70.821189 -70.7875  
Elevation            
             
             
 
TAXONOMIC COVERAGE:
Taxonomic Protocols
Organisms studied
 
Methods:Functional Groups Collected
Sediments
Pool top 2cm from 5, 60 ml syringe cores, put in 4 oz Qorpack jar and dry @ 50o C

Benthic diatoms
Nitex migration, at low tide lay down 210u Nitex on sediment surface, wait 20 min for diatoms to migrate, rinse diatoms onto GFF at lab, dry @ 50o C

Nereis
Using shovels, dig up15-20, 2-5 cm lengths, place in jar with ambient water to purge guts for 24 hr, dry @ 50o C

Mummichog
Using seine, collect 15-20, 35-50 mm lengths, fillet and save flesh tissue (tail end), dry @ 50o C

Ribbed mussel
Pool 15-20, below S. alt. on main stem, abductor muscle, dry @ 50o C

POM mid ebb, water column water filtered, clogged on GFF, dry @ 50o C

Blue mussel
Pool 15-20, on front edge of main stem, abductor muscle, dry @ 50o C

Pelagic copepod mid ebb, Plankton net, 150 u, light migration, GFF, dry @ 50o C

Silverside
Seine, pool 15-20, flesh tissue (tail end) like mummichogs, dry @ 50o C

Mya (softshell clam)
Pool 15-20 from tidal flats, abductor muscle, dry @ 50o C


Stable Isotope Food Web Monitoring Sample Collection and Processing
Sediments
Collect 5 surface (2cm) cores using 60 ml syringe, place cores in a labeled (date, station, sample type) 4 oz Qorpack jar and in a cooler for transport back to the lab. Freeze if the sample cannot be dried soon.
Dry sediments @ 50o C. After the sample is dried, use a dissecting microscope and check sediment for carbonates using a few drops of 10% HCl on a small subsample, if bubbling occurs then a larger subsample should be acidified and redried for isotope analysis. If carbonates exist it is necessary to remove them, as they will interfere with the 13C analysis. Grind a subsample of the sediments (Wig-L-Bug) for stable isotope analysis and place in a clean scint vial.

Benthic diatoms
Collect benthic diatoms by laying down several (5-7) separate pieces of 210u Nitex on the sediment surface at low tide. Pick a sediment surface that has a golden sheen and still looks fairly wet. If the surface is wet enough the diatoms will migrate up through the Nitex and there will be a fairly pure sample on one side of the Nitex. Use a 500 ml squirt bottle filled with ambient water from the site and gently squirt drops onto the Nitex to get it to lay on the sediment surface without air gaps. After 20 minutes or so, peel the Nitex from the sediment surface and check for an adequate golden sheen on the Nitex, be careful not to contaminate the diatom side with the under side mud or sand. Fold the Nitex (diatom side) carefully in on itself and place in a labeled (date, station, sample type) ziplock bag and put bag in a cooler for transport back to the lab.
At the lab unfold the Nitex with the diatom side on the outside, fold it so that the middle of the Nitex forms a corner facing down and carefully using the ambient water squirt bottle, rinse the diatoms off onto an ashed 25 mm GFF filter that has been set up in a 25mm Gelman filter tower and flask (need replicate filters). When the filter/liquid looks green suction it dry and place the filters into separate labeled (date, station, sample type) small petri dishes. Put petri dishes in a freezer if the samples cannot be dried soon. Dry the filters @ 50o C. After the sample is dried, use a dissecting microscope and check the filters for carbonates using a drop of 10% HCl on a portion of the filter, if bubbling occurs then the whole filter should be acidified and re-dried for isotope analysis. If carbonates exist it is necessary to remove them, as they will interfere with the 13C analysis.

Nereis
Collect Nereis worms by digging with a shovel in the tidal flat sediments; often the peat chunks have more worms. Collect 15 to 20 worms of 2-5 cm lengths and place in a jar with ambient water. Place the jar in a cooler for transport back to the lab.
At the lab transfer the worms to another jar and put clean ambient water in the jar, let the worms sit overnight to purge their guts, then count and record the lengths of worms, towel blot and place worms in a labeled (date, station, sample type) glass scint vial and freeze. Dry the worms @ 50o C and then grind the worms (Wig-L-Bug) for stable isotope analysis and place back in the labeled (date, station, sample type) scint vial.

Mummichog
Using a seine collect 15 to 20 mummichogs, 35-50 mm lengths and place in a labeled (date, station, sample type) ziplock bag and place in cooler for transport back to the lab. At the lab, count and record the lengths of the mummichogs, fillet and save tissue in a labeled (date, station, sample type) glass scint vial and freeze. Dry the mummichogs @ 50o C and then grind the mummichogs (Wig-L-Bug) for stable isotope analysis and place back in the labeled (date, station, sample type) scint vial.

Ribbed mussel
Collect 15 to 20 ribbed mussels from below the Spartina alterniflora channel bank edge and place in a labeled (date, station, sample type) ziplock bag and place in cooler for transport back to the lab.
At the lab, count and record the lengths of the mussels, cut out the abductor muscle and rinse/dip in DI water. Save muscle tissue in a labeled (date, station, sample type) glass scint vial and freeze. Be careful not to get shell fragments mixed in with the abductor muscle. Dry the tissue @ 50o C and then grind the tissue (Wig-L-Bug) for stable isotope analysis and place back in the labeled (date, station, sample type) scint vial.

Particulate Organic Matter (POM)
Collect between 1 liter and 4 liters (depends on station) of mid ebb channel water into labeled (date, station, sample type) bottles recording date and time of day, place in cooler for transport back to the lab.
At the lab, shake the bottles thoroughly and filter water onto ashed, 25 mm GFF filters until clogged (need replicates) and place filters into separate labeled (date, station, sample type) small petri dishes. Put petri dishes in a freezer if the samples cannot be dried soon. Dry the tissue @ 50o C.

Blue mussel
Collect 15 to 20 blue mussels from the front edge of the channel and place in a labeled (date, station, sample type) ziplock bag and place in cooler for transport back to the lab.
At the lab, count and record the lengths of the mussels, cut out the abductor muscle and rinse/dip in DI water. Save muscle tissue in a labeled (date, station, sample type) glass scint vial and freeze. Be careful not to get shell fragments mixed in with the abductor muscle. Dry the tissue @ 50o C and then grind the tissue (Wig-L-Bug) for stable isotope analysis and place back in the labeled (date, station, sample type) scint vial.

Zooplankton (pelagic copepods)
Collect zooplankton from mid channel at mid ebb tide using 150u plankton net. Pour cod end sample into a labeled (date, station, sample type) wide mouth jar, recording date and time of day, place in cooler for transport back the lab. Don’t let jar overheat, the zooplankton must be kept alive.
At the lab, we will conduct a zooplankton light migration technique procedure to purify the sample. Place the jar on a counter and let it settle. When you see a lot of zooplankton in the water column, pour off the water and zooplankton into two glass 250 ml graduated cylinders that have been wrapped with tin foil within 3” of the top. The water height should be about 2 cm above the height of tin foil. Aim a dissecting scope light or flash light at the water surface and let the zooplankton migrate to the light. Set up a vacuum flask for 25 mm filter rig. When there is a dense mass of clean zooplankton at the surface, while avoiding detritus, pipette the zooplankton onto ashed, 25 mm GFF filters (need replicates), squirt filter surface occasionally to migrate zooplankton to the middle of the filter and place filters into separate labeled (date, station, sample type) small petri dishes. Put the petri dishes in a freezer if the samples cannot be dried soon. Dry the filters @ 50o C.

Silversides
Using a seine collect 45 to 60 silversides, 30 – 70 mm lengths and place in a labeled (date, station, sample type) ziplock bag and place in cooler for transport back to the lab. At the lab separate the silversides into 3 subsamples, then count and record the lengths of the silversides for each subsample, then fillet and save the tissue in three separately labeled (date, station, sample type) glass scint vials and freeze. Dry the silversides @ 50o C and then grind them (Wig-L-Bug) for stable isotope analysis and place back in the labeled (date, station, sample type) scint vial.

Mya (softshell clam)
Collect 15 to 20 soft shell clams by digging in the tidal flats and place in a labeled (date, station, sample type) ziplock bag and place in cooler for transport back to the lab. At the lab, count and record the lengths of the clams, cut out the abductor muscle, and rinse/dip in DI water. Save muscle tissue in a labeled (date, station, sample type) glass scint vial and freeze. Be careful not to get shell fragments mixed in with the abductor muscle. Dry the tissue @ 50o C and then grind the tissue (Wig-L-Bug) for stable isotope analysis and place back in the labeled (date, station, sample type) scint vial.


Field Gear and Field lab supplies
Jon boat, 25 HP Honda
150 u plankton net with cod end
Cooler with ice
Dry cooler
Field notebook
Pencils
Sharpies (fine and large)
Label tape
3 buckets
thermometer
Box of 1 gallon ziplock bags
Box of 4 oz Qorpack jars, minimum of 6 jars
2, 60 ml syringe cores
5, 6” x 6” squares of 210u Nitex
500 ml squirt bottle with fine nozzle
shovel
small seine
4, one liter bottles for POM
4, one liter wide mouth Nalgene bottles for zooplankton tows
box of ashed 25 mm GFF filters
filter forceps
small petri dishes for 25 mm filters
hand vacuum pump/flask and Gelman tower set up for 25 mm filters
dissecting kit with scalpels and tweezers
flat of glass scint vials with caps
tin foil
2, 250 ml glass graduated cylinders
2, dissecting scope lights or flash lights (with batteries)

Data Table

Variable Name Variable Description Units Measurement Scale Code Information Number Type DateTime Format Missing Value Code Missing Value Code Explanation
Sample # Sample number identifier   nominal       NA NA = not available
Date Date of sampling   datetime     DD-MON-YYYY NA NA = not available
Site Name of sampling site   nominal       NA NA = not available
Kilometer Two letter location-kilometer name relative to the mouth of the estuary, mouth is 0 kilometers   nominal       NA NA = not available
Organisms Names of organisms sampled   nominal       NA NA = not available
13C delta 13C, isotope ratio 13C/12C partPerThousand ratio   real   NA NA = not available
15N delta 15N, isotope ratio 15N/14N partPerThousand ratio   real   NA NA = not available